Table 1.

Scaling exponents for urban indicators vs. city size

Yβ95% CIAdj-R2ObservationsCountry–year
New patents1.27[1.25,1.29]0.72331U.S. 2001
Inventors1.25[1.22,1.27]0.76331U.S. 2001
Private R&D employment1.34[1.29,1.39]0.92266U.S. 2002
″Supercreative″ employment1.15[1.11,1.18]0.89287U.S. 2003
R&D establishments1.19[1.14,1.22]0.77287U.S. 1997
R&D employment1.26[1.18,1.43]0.93295China 2002
Total wages1.12[1.09,1.13]0.96361U.S. 2002
Total bank deposits1.08[1.03,1.11]0.91267U.S. 1996
GDP1.15[1.06,1.23]0.96295China 2002
GDP1.26[1.09,1.46]0.64196EU 1999–2003
GDP1.13[1.03,1.23]0.9437Germany 2003
Total electrical consumption1.07[1.03,1.11]0.88392Germany 2002
New AIDS cases1.23[1.18,1.29]0.7693U.S. 2002–2003
Serious crimes1.16[1.11, 1.18]0.89287U.S. 2003
Total housing1.00[0.99,1.01]0.99316U.S. 1990
Total employment1.01[0.99,1.02]0.98331U.S. 2001
Household electrical consumption1.00[0.94,1.06]0.88377Germany 2002
Household electrical consumption1.05[0.89,1.22]0.91295China 2002
Household water consumption1.01[0.89,1.11]0.96295China 2002
Gasoline stations0.77[0.74,0.81]0.93318U.S. 2001
Gasoline sales0.79[0.73,0.80]0.94318U.S. 2001
Length of electrical cables0.87[0.82,0.92]0.75380Germany 2002
Road surface0.83[0.74,0.92]0.8729Germany 2002
  • Data sources are shown in SI Text . CI, confidence interval; Adj-R 2, adjusted R2 ; GDP, gross domestic product.