Table 3.

Mean cuspal enamel thickness in modern human and Neanderthal mesial molar cusps

Tooth*Cusp Human NNeanderthal § N% Diff
UM1mb1,069 ± 16913759271.0
mp1,521 ± 27114954262.7
UM2mb1,322 ± 182231197390.5
mp1,688 ± 188171293276.6
UM3mb1,594 ± 276681338583.9
mp1,855 ± 246551455578.4
LM1mb1,093 ± 24520866679.2
ml1,061 ± 19427901684.9
LM2mb1,452 ± 148321060173.0
ml1,209 ± 13025971280.3
LM3mb1,618 ± 247431006362.2
ml1,342 ± 23530954671.1
  • *U, maxillary; L, mandibular; M1, first molar; M2, second molar; M3, third molar.

  • For maxillary molar cusps: mb, mesiobuccal cusp (paracone); mp, mesiopalatal cusp (protocone); for mandibular molar cusps: mb, mesiobuccal cusp (protoconid); ml, mesiolingual cusp (metaconid).

  • Modern human values were taken from physical sections of mesial cusps of a sample of modern humans (mixed global populations) reported in ref. 34. Thickness measured in micrometers.

  • §Neanderthal values were taken from virtual sections cut through the mesial cusps of unworn or very lightly worn cusps of molars reported in ref. 37. Thickness measured in micrometers.

  • The percent difference was defined as the Neanderthal mean divided by the human mean, multiplied by 100.