Table 1.

Life evaluation, emotional well-being, income, and the income-normalized effects of other correlates

Positive affectBlue affectStressLadder
Regression coefficient
 High income0.03−0.06−0.030.64
Ratio of coefficient to log income coefficient
 High income1.001.001.001.00
 Insured0.400.921.190.59
 Old0.790.936.280.50
 Graduate0.030.01−1.930.48
 Religious1.16−0.021.210.35
 Female0.16−0.60−1.890.29
 Married0.660.450.660.32
 Weekend1.130.724.830.01
 Children0.08−0.37−2.47−0.11
 Caregiver−0.49−1.02−2.99−0.25
 Obese−0.38−0.14−0.42−0.31
 Divorced−0.38−0.27−0.88−0.32
 Health condition−1.36−1.22−3.15−0.48
 Headache−4.45−3.41−9.82−0.78
 Alone−7.13−2.10−3.73−0.75
 Smoker−1.01−0.84−2.85−0.70
  • All correlates are dichotomous. The first row reports the coefficient of an indicator for high income in regressions of the ladder, positive affect, blue affect, and stress on all correlates. Note that the four outcomes are on different scales. High income is the 58% of the sample whose monthly income is at least $4,000/mo. The subsequent rows give the regression coefficients on the other correlates divided by the regression coefficient on the high-income indicator, and thus show the estimated effect relative to the effect of increasing income by approximately 4-fold. Income has a beneficial effect on all outcomes, so the ratios in rows other than the first are positive when the correlate is associated with a good effect on the outcome and negative otherwise. “Insured” indicates that the respondent has health insurance. “Old” is age 60 y or above. “Graduate” indicates a college degree. “Religious” indicates that the respondent reports that religion is an important part of his or her daily life. “Weekend” indicates that the day reported on was a Saturday or a Sunday; this is the previous day for stress and for positive and blue affect, and the day of the interview for the ladder. “Children” is 1 if there are children living in the household, and “caregiver” is 1 if the respondent currently helps care for an elderly or disabled family member, relative, or friend. “Obese” is 1 if body mass index (based on self-reported height and weight) is ≥30. “Health condition” is 1 if the respondent reports ever having been diagnosed by a doctor or nurse with one or more of the following: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, myocardial infarction, asthma, cancer, or other chronic condition. “Alone” is 1 if the respondent reports zero social time with friends or family yesterday, including telephone and e-mail contact.