Table 2

Reported rates of spread by budding reproduction for Argentine ants

Ref.StudyNo. of sites*No. of yearsRate of spread, m/yrLocationHabitat type
62 Woodworth (1910) ? 2200Northern CA, USAUrban?
33 Barber (1916)? ?100–130Memphis, TN, USAUrban
63 Fullaway (1944) 3 3100–200Oahu, HI, USAUrban
44 Crowell (1968)§10 130–250BermudaUrban, woodland, mangrove
59 Pasfield (1968) 1 1275Sydney, AustraliaUrban
31 Fluker and Beardsley (1970) 4 1.566–100Oahu, HI, USA?
15 Erickson (1972) 1 650–150Oceanside, CA, USAGrassland
45 Tremper (1976)1 1 15Livermore, CA, USARiparian woodland
19 Human and Gordon (1996)1 (40)1.40–211Stanford, CA, USAGrassland
50 Way et al. (1997) 1 3 30Central-south PortugalOak plantation
29 Holway (1998)20 3–40–49Sacramento Valley, CA, USARiparian woodland
49 King (1998)1 2100Del Mar, CA, USACoastal sage scrub
Digirolamo (unpublished work)1 (3)15–270Marina, CA, USAMaritime chaparral, grassland
Krushelnycky et al. (unpublished work)1 3029–247Maui, HI, USASubalpine shrubland
Krushelnycky et al. (unpublished work)1 1524–150Maui, HI, USASubalpine shrubland
A.V.S. and T.J.C. (unpublished work)1 320–200Chula Vista, CA, USACoastal sage scrub
  • * Number of fronts (in parenthesis) followed at one site. 

  • Numbers are the range of values reported in each study. 

  • Cited in ref. 15 as Pemberton 1944. 

  • § Estimated from Fig. 4

  • Cited in ref. 15

  • Rates are 4-year averages for each site where Argentine ants spread.