Table 1.

Animal health and service response needs by trajectory

TrajectoryAnimal health status and drivers summaryAnimal health risksAnimal health service response needsKey drivers
Intensified and worried well of the Western worldWell-controlled endemic diseaseIncreased drug resistanceBetter surveillance, including for new diseasesConcerns over quality, safety, and animal welfare
Changing and often stretched private health services to livestock enterprisesExpanded distribution of vector-borne and other pathogensAppropriate and acceptable disease control measuresClimate change
Heightened public awarenessMultisector economic impacts of disease incursions or scaresIncentives to develop new animal health products
Real/perceived threat from the rest of world
Intensifying and increasingly market-orientated sectors of the developing world hot spotsIncreasing intensification and widening of trading partnerships in an environment of endemic disease riskEndemic disease outbreaksGreater private sector response capacity through vertical integration and other modelsLivestock Revolution (demand-driven intensification)
Presence of several major infectious diseasesInability to prevent and contain disease in the broader country and regional environmentGreater interface with public sector health authoritiesChanging patterns of global trade
Absence of effective veterinary infrastructureUnachievable standards imposed by international authorities or trading partnersGreater understanding of returns that this sector can bring to national economiesUrbanization
Limited voice in national animal health programsEmergence of new disease
Erosion of genetic resources associated with disease resistance
Smallholder systems dependent on traditional livestock-derived livelihoods (cold spots)Severely constrained economicallyMultiple endemic diseasesSpecific services targeted at smallholder and marginal producersPopulation growth
Limited livestock/feed/health resourcesLimited or no movement controlsWell-coordinated national systems bringing in NGO, private, and donor-supported servicesClimate variability
Multiple endemic diseasesProvides source of infection to market-orientated trajectoryParticular attention to preparedness and response to shocks
Often in harsh environmentsHighest vulnerability to zoonotic disease
Inadequate or total absence of animal health services