Table 1.

Predictors of continuous acute stress symptom scores (n = 4,652)

VariablesModel 1 b (95% CI)Model 2 b (95% CI)Model 3 b (95% CI)Model 4 b (95% CI)
Prior mental health4.25(2.61, 5.89)***4.29(2.64, 5.92)***4.21(2.58, 5.85)***3.52 (1.88, 5.16)***
Media exposure (hours per day)
 1.5–2.92.20(0.52, 3.89)*1.97(0.30, 6.64)*1.57(−0.14, 3.28)2.61 (0.99, 4.23)**
 3–5.96.26(4.50, 8.02)***6.10(4.36, 7.85)***5.56(3.80, 7.32)***6.38 (4.64, 8.13)***
 6 or more17.50(15.03, 19.97)***16.84(14.31, 19.35)***15.73(13.22, 18.24)***15.85 (13.42, 18.28)***
Boston Marathon bombing exposure
 Direct exposure4.54(1.43, 7.65)**3.86(0.72, 7.01)*6.17 (3.09, 9.25)***
Prior collective stress exposures
 Direct exposure to 9/113.94(1.53, 6.35)**4.89 (2.45, 7.33)***
 Direct exposure to Sandy Hook10.02(2.13, 17.90)*8.36 (0.76, 15.96)*
 Indirect exposure to Sandy Hook0.72(−0.80, 2.24)0.35 (−1.12, 1.83)
Demographics
 Geographic comparison
  National sample1.29 (−0.51, 3.08)
 Female sex2.16 (0.68, 3.65)**
 Education§
  High school−5.33 (−9.35, −1.30)**
  Some college−5.06 (−11.05, −3.06)***
  Bachelor’s degree or higher−6.98 (−11.04, −2.91)**
 Ethnicity
  Mixed race, non-Hispanic9.31 (5.06, 13.56)***
  Hispanic1.47 (−0.76, 3.71)
 Income−1.13 (−1.52, −0.74)***
Model statisticsF(4, 4,647) = 59.37***F(4, 4,646) = 50.00***F(8, 4,652) = 35.04***F(16, 4635) = 24.67***
R2 = 0.12R2 = 0.12R2 = 0.14R2 = 0.18
  • * P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.

  • From 0 to 1.49 h of media exposure comprise the reference group.

  • Boston and New York subsamples were not significantly different and comprise the reference group.

  • § Less than a high school education comprises the reference group.

  • Caucasians and African Americans were not significantly different and comprise the reference group.