Table 3.

Aggregate per-citation costs, 2009

Collection of journalsType of institution
Research 1, $Research 2, $Master’s, $
All tiered nonprofits0.660.520.44
All nonprofits in sample1.020.830.71
Cost-efficient 95% of cites0.800.630.50
Cost-efficient 80% of cites0.610.450.34
Cost-efficient 50% of cites0.380.290.15