Table 3.

Aggregate per-citation costs, 2009

 Collection of journals Type of institution Research 1, $Research 2,$ Master’s, \$ All tiered nonprofits 0.66 0.52 0.44 All nonprofits in sample 1.02 0.83 0.71 Cost-efficient 95% of cites 0.80 0.63 0.50 Cost-efficient 80% of cites 0.61 0.45 0.34 Cost-efficient 50% of cites 0.38 0.29 0.15