Table S1.

Clinical and neuropathological characteristics of patient samples

CaseAutonomic symptomsCerebellar symptomsParkinsonism symptomsClinical interventions*Gross brain changesMicroscopic brain changes
Aβ plaquesTau inclusions
PD1CP, IC, OH, REM, SIATRE, DYS, DYAMadopar, amantadineDepigmentation of substantia nigra, cerebellar discoloration++
PD2CP, IC, OHTRE, RGDRopinirole, Sinemet, CabergolineDepigmentation of substantia nigra++
PD3SIAMadoparDepigmentation of substantia nigra+
PD5RGD, BK, DYSSinemet, Madopar, apomorphineDepigmentation of brainstem
PD6Depigmentation of brainstem++
PD7ICTRE, RGD, BKKinson, Artane, Sifrol, ReminylDepigmentation of brainstem++
MSA1CP, ICAction tremorDYS, DYASinemet, entacapone, PergolideDepigmentation of substantia nigra, cerebellar discoloration, small basal ganglia+
MSA2CP, IC, SIARGD, DYS, DYAMadopar, Sinemet, entacapone, Ropinirole, amantidineDepigmentation of substantia nigra, autolytic cerebellum, small pons+
MSA3CP, OH, IC, SIABK, MG, RGD, PISinemet, Ropinirole, Madopar, entacapone, Pramipexole, amantidineDepigmentation of substantia nigra, discoloration of white matter of cerebellum+
MSA4CP, OH, ICAction tremorRopinirole, Sinemet, amantadine, Rasagiline, entacapone, MadoparDepigmentation of substantia nigra, shrunken, brown, softened basal ganglia+
MSA5OHTRE, RGD, BK, PIMadopar, entacapone, Ropinerole, SelegilineSoftening/discoloration of the cerebellum, darkened frontal lobe, putamen, and globus pallidus+
MSA6CP, OH, UR, SIABK, RGD, DYSEntacapone, Sinemet, Madopar, amantadine, Ropinirole, pramipexoleDepigmentation of substantia nigra, softening of cerebellum+
MSA7ED, UR, OH, REMUnsteady gait, dysdiadochokinesisBK, PILevodopa, amantadineDepigmentation of substantia nigra, softening of cerebellum
MSA8ED, UR, CPDysdiadochokinesis, ataxiaBK, PI, DYS, DYASinemetDepigmentation of brainstem, white matter loss of cerebellum
MSA9CP, MGRGD, BKSinemet, entacapone, apomorphineAtrophy/discoloration of the putamen, depigmentation of the brainstem
MSA10ED, IC, OH, CPRGD, BKMadopar, Cabergoline, amantadineAtrophy of putamen and globus pallidus, depigmentation of the brainstem
MSA11IC, ED, MG, REM, OHBKMadopar, Sinemet, Stalevo, apomorphineAtrophy/discoloration of putamen and globus pallidus, depigmentation of the brainstem
MSA12AtaxiaRGD, BK, PISinemetDepigmentation of substantia nigra, atrophy of striatum, degeneration of cerebellum, pons, and inferior olives
MSA13IC, OH, CPRGD, BK, DYSDepigmentation of substantia nigra, degeneration of cerebellum and pons
MSA14IC, ED, REM, OHCerebellar ataxiaDegeneration of cerebellum, pons, and inferior olives
  • BK, bradykinesia; CP, constipation; DYA, dysarthria; DYS, dysphagia; ED, erectile dysfunction; IC, urinary incontinence; MG, micrographia; OH, orthostatic hypotension; PI, postural instability; REM, REM sleep disorder; RGD, rigidity; SIA, sialorrhea; TRE, tremor; UR, urinary retention.

  • * Madopar = benserazide/levodopa; Sinemet & Kinson = carbidopa/levodopa; Stalevo = carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone.

  • Aβ and tau pathology are reported as present (+) or absent (–).

  • Clinical report for PD3 was incomplete.