Table 3.

RII in mortality by age, sex, and cause of death for United States and Costa Rica in the 1990s

VariableUnited States (95% CI)Costa Rica (95% CI)
Age 40–64 y
 Males3.5 (3.0–4.0)1.3 (1.0–1.8)
 Females3.8 (3.1–4.6)1.7 (1.1–2.6)
Age 65–89 y
 Males1.8 (1.7–2.0)0.8 (0.7–1.1)
 Females1.6 (1.4–1.8)1.5 (1.2–2.0)
Causes of death (age 40–89 y)
 All causes2.1 (1.9–2.2)1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 Communicable1.9 (1.5–2.5)1.5 (0.8–3.0)
 Lung cancer2.8 (2.4–3.4)1.7 (0.7–3.7)
 Other cancer1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
 Heart diseases2.1 (1.9–2.4)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 Cerebrovascular1.7 (1.4–2.2)1.5 (1.0–2.4)
 Chr. respiratory2.5 (2.0–3.3)2.5 (1.5–4.3)
 Diabetes4.0 (2.7–6.0)1.5 (0.7–3.1)
 External injuries1.8 (1.3–2.4)1.9 (1.1–3.4)
 Other2.3 (1.9–2.7)1.0 (0.7–1.5)
  • RII is the mortality rate ratio of individuals in the lowest SES-rank relative to the highest rank, estimated with Poisson regression models controlling for age (continuous and squared) and sex. Data from refs. 40 and 43.