Table S3.

AMS radiocarbon dates from the sites in this study

Site and trench (context)Material, taxonLaboratory no.Treatmentδ13C14C date y B.P.cal CE
Panga ya Saidi, Kenya
 PYS10-01 (103)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-29285RR−8.711,212 ± 23770–950
Mgombani, Kenya
 MGB10-01 (101)Charred seed, Pennisetum glaucumOxA-27099RR−8.881,184 ± 26775–980
 MGB10-01 (101)Charred seed, Pennisetum glaucumOxA-27100RR−8.751,179 ± 25775–985
 MGB10-01 (105)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-29276RR−9.181,217 ± 29765–960
Tumbe, Pemba
 TMB Unit 14, (Ly 3, Lvl 1)Charred nutshell, Cocos nuciferaBeta-202825ABAn/a1,180 ± 40775–985
 TMB Unit 56 (Ly 4, Lvl 1)Charred seed, Pennisetum glaucumBeta-202827ABAn/a1,370 ± 40640–770
Fukuchani, Zanzibar
 FK10 (003)Bone, cf Neotragus/CephalophusOxA-31426UF−20.941,325 ± 23670–770
 FK10 (004)Charcoal, RhizophoraceaeOxA-31037RR−25.511,269 ± 30680–880
 FK10 (011)Charcoal, RhizophoraceaeOxA-31038RR−24.601,428 ± 30595–675
Unguja Ukuu, Zanzibar
 UU10 (008)Charred food residue (indet seeds)OxA-29310*RR−24.861,282 ± 24680–865
 UU10 (008)Charred food residue (indet seeds)OxA-29311*RR−25.041,301 ± 24670–840
 UU11 (002)Charred seed, Adansonia digitataOxA-29286ABA−26.471,066 ± 23980–1030
 UU11 (004)Charred seed, Adansonia digitataOxA-27517RR−24.901,178 ± 25775–985
 UU11 (006)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-X-2554–12RR−10.651,266 ± 35680–885
 UU11 (007)Charred seed, Pennisetum glaucumOxA-27541RR−15.261,310 ± 31660–860
 UU11 (010)Charred seed, Vigna radiataOxA-27660ABA−32.491,305 ± 28665–855
 UU11 (012)Charred seed, Pennisetum glaucumOxA-X-2507–17ABA−15.621,403 ± 28605–760
 UU11 (012)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-29287ABA−9.211,318 ± 23675–770
 UU11 (013)Charred seed, Adansonia digitataOxA-27516RR−25.501,372 ± 25645–765
 UU11 (013)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-28657RR−9.541,390 ± 25640–760
 UU11 (013)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-29277RR−9.601,342 ± 24660–770
 UU11 (014)Charred seed, Vigna radiataOxA-27515RR−25.531,280 ± 26680–875
 UU11 (017)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-28656RR−9.541,367 ± 26645–765
 UU14 (1,404)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-27520RR−24.741,151 ± 26885–990
 UU14 (1,417)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-27518*None−10.081,244 ± 27715–890
 UU14 (1,417)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-27519*ABA−8.991,287 ± 25675–860
 UU14 (1,417)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-27698*RR−9.151,226 ± 25765–895
 UU14 (1,420)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-29278RR−9.731,317 ± 24670–770
 UU14 (1,436)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-28189RR−26.701,265 ± 23685–880
 UU14 (1,439)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-29279RR−9.141,232 ± 26765–895
 UU14 (1,439)Charred seed, Triticum sp.OxA-29288RR−21.381,305 ± 24670–835
 UU14 (1,442)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-28658RR−10.081,314 ± 26665–775
 UU14 (1,445)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-27595ABA−24.761,245 ± 22765–890
 UU15 (1,556)Charred seed, Vigna unguiculataOxA-30955RR−24.601,265 ± 45675–890
Juani Primary School, Mafia archipelago
 JS12-05 (503)Charred seed, Vigna cf unguiculataWk-40939ABAn/a1,173 ± 20875–980
 JS12-05 (505)Charred seed, Vigna cf unguiculataWk-40938ABAn/a1,184 ± 21775–975
 JS12-05 (505)Charred seed, Vigna sp.Wk-40937ABAn/a1,181 ± 20775–975
Sima, Comores
 SMA4 (8)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30711RR−25.091,230 ± 24770–890
 SMA4 (10)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30710RR−23.111,232 ± 23770–890
 SMA4 (12–13)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30709RR−26.371,163 ± 23885–985
 SMA4 (12–13)Charred seed, Vigna radiataOxA-30708RR−24.591,276 ± 24685–875
 SMA4 (17)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30712RR−26.611,204 ± 24775–965
 SMA4 (19–21)Charred seed, Sorghum bicolorOxA-30707RR−10.001,242 ± 23770–885
 SMA4 (19–21)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30706RR−24.831,262 ± 23690–885
Mahilaka, Madagascar
 MHLK20 (2,002)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30386RR−26.14879 ± 241155–1265
 MHLK20 (2,016)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30557RR−24.361,023 ± 26990–1150
 MHLK20 (2,018)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-30016RR−25.88960 ± 241030–1175
 MHLK20 (2,024)Charred seed, Oryza sativaOxA-29981RR−26.31966 ± 241030–1165
  • Dates were calibrated to 2σ (95.4% confidence) with the program OxCal, version 4.2.4 using mixed IntCal13/SHCal13 calibration curves (Materials and Methods). ABA, Acid–base–acid; Beta, Beta Analytical; cal, calibrated years; n/a, not available; OxA, Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit; RR, milder version of ABA; UF, ultra-filtration; Wk, University of Waikato Radiocarbon Facility.

  • * Duplicate.