Table S1.

State-level summary statistics: 1970–2014 (Table 1)

VariableMeanSDp5p10p50p90p95
Years 1970–2014
 Gun homicide rate5.74.91.01.44.411.114.4
 Homicide rate8.56.72.12.66.815.619.4
 Gun suicide rate10.24.23.14.010.215.017.1
 Suicide rate17.34.710.211.916.723.726.0
 Handgun waiting period0.450.4900011
 Background checks0.640.4800111
Years 1977–2014 (Control variables for model 3)
 Alcohol consumption2.90.82.02.12.73.84.3
 Income per capita25.45.817.218.624.832.635.7
 Demographics, %
  Poverty13.14.07.98.712.518.520.9
  Urban areas64.220.129.535.564.989.091.9
  Black11.211.80.40.77.427.532.1
  Ages 0–14 y21.42.417.918.721.324.325.8
  Ages 15–17 y4.50.63.73.94.45.55.8
  Ages 18–24 y10.91.68.99.210.313.413.8
  Ages 25–34 y15.12.212.012.515.017.918.7
  Ages 35–44 y14.01.910.811.314.116.316.9
  Ages 45–54 y12.02.29.09.312.014.915.4
  Ages 55–64 y9.71.77.67.99.212.312.9
  • Homicide and suicide rates are adult (21+) deaths per 100,000 adult residents. Alcohol consumption is measured in gallons of ethanol per capita, and income is measured in thousands of 1998 dollars. Demographic control variables are percentages of total state population. Columns beginning with “p” represent percentiles of the distribution; for example, “p10” means the 10th percentile.