Table S4.

Effects of handgun waiting periods and background checks on violence, including state-specific trends, 1970–2014

1970–20141977–2014
Type of violence(1)(2)(3)
All homicide
 Waiting period−0.118 (0.049)**−0.129 (0.049)**−0.086 (0.045)*
 Background check0.033 (0.057)0.001 (0.047)
Gun homicide
 Waiting period−0.181 (0.066)***−0.195 (0.071)***−0.124 (0.050)**
 Background check0.043 (0.077)0.014 (0.068)
Non-gun homicide
 Waiting period−0.011 (0.039)−0.014 (0.038)−0.030 (0.047)
 Background check0.011 (0.051)−0.015 (0.035)
All suicide
 Waiting period0.015 (0.013)0.017 (0.013)0.022 (0.016)
 Background check−0.005 (0.017)−0.006 (0.015)
Gun suicide
 Waiting period−0.044 (0.017)**−0.045 (0.020)**−0.012 (0.016)
 Background check0.002 (0.018)−0.017 (0.017)
Non-gun suicide
 Waiting period0.056 (0.019)***0.050 (0.020)**0.048 (0.024)*
 Background check0.020 (0.022)0.019 (0.024)
  • Coefficients represent the effects of waiting periods and background checks on the natural logarithm of deaths per 100,000 adult residents. Models mirror Table 1, but include a state-specific, linear trend in addition to state and year fixed effects. Models 1–2 include only the policy variables shown. Model 3 follows the specification of Ludwig and Cook (8) and uses fewer years of data due to missing control variables in earlier years. SEs, shown in parentheses, are clustered by state. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.