Table 2.

Effects of handgun waiting periods and background checks on violence, 1990–1998

Brady period, 1990–1998
Type of violence(1)(2)(3)
All homicide
 Waiting period−0.073 (0.084)−0.130 (0.077)*−0.145 (0.060)**
 Background check0.091 (0.064)0.010 (0.053)
Gun homicide
 Waiting period−0.103 (0.093)−0.179 (0.087)**−0.181 (0.068)**
 Background check0.120 (0.080)0.033 (0.065)
Non-gun homicide
 Waiting period−0.019 (0.068)−0.035 (0.064)−0.072 (0.050)
 Background check0.025 (0.044)−0.043 (0.039)
All suicide
 Waiting period−0.016 (0.021)−0.022 (0.023)−0.036 (0.020)*
 Background check0.009 (0.022)−0.007 (0.019)
Gun suicide
 Waiting period−0.039 (0.024)−0.053 (0.028)*−0.066 (0.021)***
 Background check0.023 (0.028)−0.003 (0.024)
Non-gun suicide
 Waiting period0.050 (0.021)**0.035 (0.022)0.018 (0.022)
 Background check0.024 (0.023)0.009 (0.018)
  • Coefficients represent the effects of waiting periods and background checks on the natural logarithm of deaths per 100,000 adult residents. All models include state and year fixed effects. Models 1–2 include only the policy variables shown. Model 3 follows the specification of Ludwig and Cook (8) and includes alcohol consumption, poverty, income, urbanization, black population, and seven age groups. Summary statistics for all variables are included in Table S2. The sample includes 459 state-year observations for all models. SEs, shown in parentheses, are clustered by state. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.