Table 1.

Recommendations for journals

Detrimental authorship practiceDefinitionProposed solutions
Ghost authorship (7)Authors who contributed to the work but are not listed, generally to hide a conflict of interest from editors, reviewers, and readers.Corresponding author must confirm that all who deserve authorship are listed; conflict of interest declarations; ethics training in collaboration with universities/research institutions.
Guest/gift/honorific authorship (8)Individuals given authorship credit who have not contributed in any substantive way to the research but are added to the author list by virtue of their stature in the organization.Journals require each author have a transparent, identified, legitimate role in the research.
Orphan authorshipAuthors who contributed materially to the work but are omitted from the author list unfairly by the drafting team.Corresponding author must confirm that all who deserve authorship are listed; ethics training in collaboration with universities/research institutions.
Forged authorshipUnwitting authors who had no part in the work but whose names are appended to the paper without their knowledge to increase the likelihood of publication.Journal contacts all authors to confirm they acknowledge their contribution to the work.