Table 1.

Summary of estimated total biomass for abundant taxonomic groups

TaxonMass (Gt C)Uncertainty (-fold)
Plants4501.2
Bacteria7010
Fungi123
Archaea713
Protists44
Animals25
 Arthropods, terrestrial0.2
 Arthropods, marine1
 Chordates, fish0.7
 Chordates, livestock0.1
 Chordates, humans0.06
 Chordates, wild mammals0.007
 Chordates, wild birds0.002
 Annelids0.2
 Molluscs0.2
 Cnidarians0.1
 Nematodes0.02
Viruses0.220
Total5501.7
  • Values are based on an extensive literature survey and data integration as detailed in the SI Appendix. Reported values have been rounded to reflect the associated level of uncertainty. We report an uncertainty projection for each kingdom as a fold-change factor from the mean, representing a range akin to a 95% confidence interval of the estimate. The procedure for deriving these projections is documented in detail in Materials and Methods and SI Appendix.