Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses

June 30, 2009
106 (26) 10558-10563

Abstract

Here, we describe the “temporal lens” concept that can be used for the focus and magnification of ultrashort electron packets in the time domain. The temporal lenses are created by appropriately synthesizing optical pulses that interact with electrons through the ponderomotive force. With such an arrangement, a temporal lens equation with a form identical to that of conventional light optics is derived. The analog of ray diagrams, but for electrons, are constructed to help the visualization of the process of compressing electron packets. It is shown that such temporal lenses not only compensate for electron pulse broadening due to velocity dispersion but also allow compression of the packets to durations much shorter than their initial widths. With these capabilities, ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy can be extended to new domains,and, just as importantly, electron pulses can be delivered directly on an ultrafast techniques target specimen.

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Acknowledgments.

We thank Sang Tae Park for helpful discussions; Peter Baum for careful reading of the manuscript; and the 3 referees, Profs. F. Krausz, P. Corkum, and A. Bandrauk, for helpful comments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in the Gordon and Betty Moore Center for Physical Biology at Caltech.

Supporting Information

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Supporting Information

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Information & Authors

Information

Published in

Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Vol. 106 | No. 26
June 30, 2009
PubMed: 19541639

Classifications

Submission history

Received: April 17, 2009
Published online: June 30, 2009
Published in issue: June 30, 2009

Keywords

  1. attosecond imaging
  2. ultrafast techniques

Acknowledgments

We thank Sang Tae Park for helpful discussions; Peter Baum for careful reading of the manuscript; and the 3 referees, Profs. F. Krausz, P. Corkum, and A. Bandrauk, for helpful comments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in the Gordon and Betty Moore Center for Physical Biology at Caltech.

Notes

This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/0904912106/DCSupplemental.

Authors

Affiliations

Shawn A. Hilbert
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 116 Brace Laboratory, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111; and
Cornelis Uiterwaal
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 116 Brace Laboratory, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111; and
Brett Barwick
Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125
Herman Batelaan
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 116 Brace Laboratory, PO Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111; and
Ahmed H. Zewail1 [email protected]
Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125

Notes

1
To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]
Contributed by Ahmed H. Zewail, May 6, 2009
Author contributions: S.A.H., C.U., B.B., H.B., and A.H.Z. designed research, performed research, contributed new reagents/analytic tools, analyzed data, and wrote the paper.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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    Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    • Vol. 106
    • No. 26
    • pp. 10395-10872

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