Abstract

Influenza A virus reservoirs in animals have provided novel genetic elements leading to the emergence of global pandemics in humans. Most influenza A viruses circulate in waterfowl, but those that infect mammalian hosts are thought to pose the greatest risk for zoonotic spread to humans and the generation of pandemic or panzootic viruses. We have identified an influenza A virus from little yellow-shouldered bats captured at two locations in Guatemala. It is significantly divergent from known influenza A viruses. The HA of the bat virus was estimated to have diverged at roughly the same time as the known subtypes of HA and was designated as H17. The neuraminidase (NA) gene is highly divergent from all known influenza NAs, and the internal genes from the bat virus diverged from those of known influenza A viruses before the estimated divergence of the known influenza A internal gene lineages. Attempts to propagate this virus in cell cultures and chicken embryos were unsuccessful, suggesting distinct requirements compared with known influenza viruses. Despite its divergence from known influenza A viruses, the bat virus is compatible for genetic exchange with human influenza viruses in human cells, suggesting the potential capability for reassortment and contributions to new pandemic or panzootic influenza A viruses.

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Data Availability

Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. CY103873, CY103874, CY103875, CY103876, CY103877, CY103878, CY103879, CY103880, CY103881, CY103882, CY103883, CY103884, CY103885, CY103886, CY103887, CY103888, CY103889, CY103890, CY103891, CY103892, CY103893, CY103894, CY103895, and CY103896).

Acknowledgments

We thank Luis Escobar, Alejandra Estevez, María Reneé López, Ramon Medrano, Maria E. Morales, and María Luisa Muller from Center for Health Studies, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala; Julio Martinez from the Guatemala Ministry of Agriculture-Animal Health Department; and Rafael Ciraiz from Guatemala Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance for excellent technical and logistical assistance. We thank Amanda Balish, Thomas Rowe, Wendy Sessions, James Stevens, Taronna Maines, and Angela Yang for preliminary studies; Yunho Jang for technical assistance; and Peter Palese and Erich Hoffmann for plasmids. This study was supported in part by Technical Support Corps funds from the Global Disease Detection Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published in

Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Vol. 109 | No. 11
March 13, 2012
PubMed: 22371588

Classifications

Data Availability

Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. CY103873, CY103874, CY103875, CY103876, CY103877, CY103878, CY103879, CY103880, CY103881, CY103882, CY103883, CY103884, CY103885, CY103886, CY103887, CY103888, CY103889, CY103890, CY103891, CY103892, CY103893, CY103894, CY103895, and CY103896).

Submission history

Published online: February 27, 2012
Published in issue: March 13, 2012

Keywords

  1. evolution
  2. host range
  3. orthomyxoviridae
  4. Chiroptera
  5. Central America

Acknowledgments

We thank Luis Escobar, Alejandra Estevez, María Reneé López, Ramon Medrano, Maria E. Morales, and María Luisa Muller from Center for Health Studies, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala; Julio Martinez from the Guatemala Ministry of Agriculture-Animal Health Department; and Rafael Ciraiz from Guatemala Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance for excellent technical and logistical assistance. We thank Amanda Balish, Thomas Rowe, Wendy Sessions, James Stevens, Taronna Maines, and Angela Yang for preliminary studies; Yunho Jang for technical assistance; and Peter Palese and Erich Hoffmann for plasmids. This study was supported in part by Technical Support Corps funds from the Global Disease Detection Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Notes

This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.

Authors

Affiliations

Suxiang Tong1 [email protected]
Division of Viral Diseases,
Yan Li
Division of Viral Diseases,
Pierre Rivailler
Christina Conrardy
Division of Viral Diseases,
Danilo A. Alvarez Castillo
Center for Health Studies, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, 01015, Guatemala City, Guatemala; and
Li-Mei Chen
Sergio Recuenco
Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, and
James A. Ellison
Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, and
Charles T. Davis
Ian A. York
Amy S. Turmelle
Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, and
David Moran
Center for Health Studies, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, 01015, Guatemala City, Guatemala; and
Shannon Rogers
Division of Viral Diseases,
Mang Shi
Division of Viral Diseases,
Ying Tao
Division of Viral Diseases,
Michael R. Weil
Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322;
Kevin Tang
Division of Scientific Resources, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333;
Lori A. Rowe
Division of Scientific Resources, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333;
Scott Sammons
Division of Scientific Resources, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333;
Xiyan Xu
Michael Frace
Division of Scientific Resources, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333;
Kim A. Lindblade
International Emerging Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Regional Office for Central America and Panama, 01015, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Nancy J. Cox
Larry J. Anderson
Division of Viral Diseases,
Charles E. Rupprecht1 [email protected]
Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, and
Ruben O. Donis1 [email protected]

Notes

1
To whom correspondence may be addressed. E-mail: [email protected], [email protected], or [email protected].
Author contributions: S.T., C.E.R., and R.O.D. designed research; S.T., Y.L., P.R., C.C., D.A.A.C., L.-M.C., S. Recuenco, J.A.E., C.T.D., I.A.Y., A.S.T., D.M., M.S., Y.T., M.R.W., K.T., L.A.R., S.S., and X.X. performed research; S.T., Y.L., P.R., L.-M.C., I.A.Y., S. Rogers, M.S., C.E.R., and R.O.D. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; S.T., Y.L., P.R., C.C., D.A.A.C., L.-M.C., S. Recuenco, J.A.E., C.T.D., I.A.Y., A.S.T., D.M., M.S., Y.T., M.R.W., K.T., L.A.R., S.S., X.X., M.F., K.A.L., N.J.C., L.J.A., C.E.R., and R.O.D. analyzed data; and S.T., Y.L., P.R., L.-M.C., C.T.D., I.A.Y., M.S., M.R.W., L.J.A., C.E.R., and R.O.D. wrote the paper.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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    A distinct lineage of influenza A virus from bats
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    • Vol. 109
    • No. 11
    • pp. 4023-4335

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