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Data Availability

Data and analysis script are available in ref. 11.

Acknowledgments

We thank Mertens et al. for sharing well-documented data and code.

References

1
R. H. Thaler, C. R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Yale University Press, 2008).
2
Y. Lin, M. Osman, R. Ashcroft, Nudge: Concept, effectiveness, and ethics. Basic Appl. Soc. Psych. 39, 293–306 (2017).
3
S. Mertens, M. Herberz, U. J. J. Hahnel, T. Brosch, The effectiveness of nudging: A meta-analysis of choice architecture interventions across behavioral domains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 119, e2107346118 (2022).
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J. L. Vevea, C. M. Woods, Publication bias in research synthesis: Sensitivity analysis using a priori weight functions. Psychol. Methods 10, 428–443 (2005).
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C. Doucouliagos, T. D. Stanley, Theory competition and selectivity: Are all economic facts greatly exaggerated? J. Econ. Surv. 27, 316–339 (2013).
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M. Maier, F. Bartoš, E. J. Wagenmakers, Robust Bayesian meta-analysis: Addressing publication bias with model-averaging. Psychol. Methods, https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000405 (2022).
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J. L. Vevea, L. V. Hedges, A general linear model for estimating effect size in the presence of publication bias. Psychometrika 60, 419–435 (1995).
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T. D. Stanley, H. Doucouliagos, Meta-regression approximations to reduce publication selection bias. Res. Synth. Methods 5, 60–78 (2014).
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F. Bartoš, M. Maier, E.-J. Wagenmakers, H. Doucouliagos, T. D. Stanley, No need to choose: Model-averaging across complementary publication bias adjustment methods. Evidence Synthesis Methods, in press.
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J. A. Hoeting, D. Madigan, A. E. Raftery, C. T. Volinsky, Bayesian model averaging: A tutorial. Stat. Sci. 14, 382–417 (1999).
11
S. Mertens, M. Herberz, U. J. J. Hahnel, T. Brosch, mhhb_nma_data_corrected.csv. Open Science Framework. https://osf.io/ubt9a/. Accessed 3 May 2022.
12
M. Maier et al., Code and data for analyses in “No evidence for nudging after adjusting for publication bias.” Open Science Framework. https://osf.io/svz6e/. Deposited 6 January 2022.

Information & Authors

Information

Published in

Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Vol. 119 | No. 31
August 2, 2022
PubMed: 35858389

Classifications

Data Availability

Data and analysis script are available in ref. 11.

Submission history

Published online: July 19, 2022
Published in issue: August 2, 2022

Acknowledgments

We thank Mertens et al. for sharing well-documented data and code.

Notes

*Our analysis is based on the corrected dataset in ref. 12.
We also reanalyzed the data by including only models of selection for statistical significance, confirming our results.

Authors

Affiliations

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom
Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 WS, The Netherlands
T. D. Stanley
Deakin Laboratory for the Meta-Analysis of Research, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
Department of Economics, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom
Adam J. L. Harris
Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, London WC1H 0AP, United Kingdom
Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 WS, The Netherlands

Notes

2
To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: [email protected].
Author contributions: M.M. and F.B. designed research; M.M. and F.B. performed research; M.M. and F.B. analyzed data; and M.M., F.B., T.D.S., D.R.S., A.J.L.H., and E.-J.W. wrote the paper.
1
M.M. and F.B. contributed equally to this work.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interest.

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