Reply to Komatsu et al.: From local social mindfulness to global sustainability efforts?

Niels J. Van Doesum https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1695-0046 [email protected], Ryan O. Murphy, Marcello Gallucci, Efrat Aharonov-Majar, Ursula Athenstaedt https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3142-5506, Wing Tung Au, Liying Bai https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-4705, Robert Böhm https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6806-0374, Inna Bovina https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9497-6199, Nancy R. Buchan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7611-7227, Xiao-Ping Chen, Kitty B. Dumont https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5926-9096, Jan B. Engelmann https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6493-8792, Kimmo Eriksson https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7164-0924, Hyun Euh https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0972-1640, Susann Fiedler https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9337-2142, Justin Friesen https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1624-5315, Simon Gächter https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7182-8505, Camilo Garcia, Roberto González https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1824-6215, Sylvie Graf https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7810-5457, Katarzyna Growiec https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4448-2561, Serge Guimond https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0267-7659, Martina Hřebíčková https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8700-1326, Elizabeth Immer-Bernold, Jeff Joireman, Gokhan Karagonlar https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2718-5258, Kerry Kawakami https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5320-3472, Toko Kiyonari https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9957-4818, Yu Kou, Alexandros-Andreas Kyrtsis https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7030-5959, Siugmin Lay https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7800-1554, Geoffrey J. Leonardelli https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9968-7081, Norman P. Li, Yang Li https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8239-3279, Boris Maciejovsky https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3195-0802, Zoi Manesi, Ali Mashuri https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6543-8634, Aurelia Mok https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1666-7745, Karin S. Moser https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0120-9327, Ladislav Moták https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4602-8055, Adrian Netedu https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3342-936X, Michael J. Platow https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1721-0827, Karolina Raczka-Winkler, Christopher P. Reinders Folmer https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1340-2300, Cecilia Reyna https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6097-4961, Angelo Romano https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7502-9268, Shaul Shalvi https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2225-7352, Cláudia Simão https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7723-752X, Adam W. Stivers https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7246-4002, Pontus Strimling, Yannis Tsirbas https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0048-5696, Sonja Utz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7979-3554, Leander van der Meij https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6394-3071, Sven Waldzus https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9633-2928, Yiwen Wang, Bernd Weber https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7811-9605, Ori Weisel https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9304-2303, Tim Wildschut https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6499-5487, Fabian Winter https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4838-4504, Junhui Wu https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3224-3595, Jose C. Yong https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6413-2016, and Paul A. M. Van Lange https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7774-6984Authors Info & Affiliations
January 19, 2022
119 (4) e2119303118
Komatsu et al. (1) argue that Van Doesum et al. (2) may have overlooked the role of GDP in reporting a positive association between social mindfulness (SoMi) and the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) at country level. Although the relationship between EPI and SoMi is relatively weaker for countries with higher GDP, that does not imply that the overall observed relationship is a statistical artifact. Rather, it implies that GDP may be a moderator of the relationship between EPI and SoMi. The observed correlation is a valid result on average across countries, and the actual effect size would, at least to some degree, depend on GDP.
However, it would not be valid to select a subsample of countries with high GDP to test this, as such would create a restriction of range that artificially attenuates the correlation. The correct strategy is to test the degree to which GDP moderates the effect of EPI on SoMi. Unfortunately, the substantial collinearity between GDP and EPI (the Pearson correlation is 0.64 for raw GDP and 0.78 for log-transformed GDP) and the small sample size of countries prevent an effective test of the interaction term. If one still estimates the interaction, it turns out to be nonsignificant: β = −0.235, t(26) = −1.041, and P = 0.308 for raw GDP; and β = −0.045, t(26) = −0.343, and P = 0.734 for log-transformed GDP. This result does not mean that, with a larger sample of countries, a statistically significant interaction would not be found, and, in any case, the average effect still remains valid. Moreover, the complexities of the world make it likely that alternative moderating variables will be discovered that relate to both EPI and SoMi; this makes future research even more important.
In that vein, it is encouraging to read that the EPI as updated in 2020 with some established drivers of climate change (e.g., waste management, CO2 emissions from land cover change, and black carbon emissions) (3) still shows a positive association with SoMi as assessed in 2015 (1). Indeed, this may invite a shift from a relatively local to a more encompassing global focus. In many ways, people live their lives in the local environment, even though the outcomes may be experienced at the global level. Climate change is a strong case in point. While tentative, Komatsu et al. provide intriguing indications that SoMi can be associated with global sustainability, especially in their analysis of the ecological footprint of consumption—an interesting illustration that consumption is often local, while consequences are often global. We thank the authors for their extension of our work, and we agree that the distinction between global and local sustainability efforts may be fruitful as a variable for future research efforts. After all, this supports the idea that social mindfulness “may promote a social and political climate that helps recognize, address, and reduce climate change” (ref. 2, p. 6).

References

1
H. Komatsu, J. Rappleye, I. Silova, Social mindfulness for global environmental sustainability? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., (2021).
2
N. J. Van Doesum et al., Social mindfulness and prosociality vary across the globe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2023846118 (2021).
3
Environmental Performance Index, 2020 EPI results. https://epi.yale.edu/epi-results/2020/component/epi. Accessed 22 October 2021.

Information & Authors

Information

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Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Go to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Vol. 119 | No. 4
January 25, 2022
PubMed: 35046048

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Submission history

Published online: January 19, 2022
Published in issue: January 25, 2022

Authors

Affiliations

Social, Economic and Organisational Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands
Knowledge Centre for Psychology and Economic Behaviour, Leiden University 2312 HS Leiden, The Netherlands
Ryan O. Murphy2
Department of Economics, University of Zürich 8006 Zürich, Switzerland
Morningstar Investment Management, Chicago, IL 60602
Marcello Gallucci2
Faculty of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca 20126 Milan, Italy
Efrat Aharonov-Majar
Department of Psychology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel
Department of Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Graz 8010 Graz, Austria
Wing Tung Au
Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China
Department of Applied Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Copenhagen Center for Social Data Science, University of Copenhagen 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Department of Clinical and Legal Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow 127051, Russia
Sonoco International Business Department, Darla Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208
Xiao-Ping Chen
Department of Management and Organization, Michael G. Foster School of Business, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
School of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, University of South Africa 0003 Pretoria, South Africa
Center for Research in Experimental Economics and Political Decision Making, Amsterdam School of Economics, University of Amsterdam 1001 NJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Behavioral and Experimental Economics, The Tinbergen Institute 1082 MS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Center for Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Department of Strategy & Innovation, Institute of Cognition & Behavior, Vienna University of Economics and Business 1020 Vienna, Austria
Department of Psychology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3N 0G1, Canada
Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, School of Economics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
Camilo Garcia
Laboratory of Social Interaction, Psychology Department, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz 91095, Mexico
Escuela de Psicología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences 602 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Department of Social and Personality Psychology, Institute of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities 03-815 Warsaw, Poland
Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale et Cognitive, Université Clermont Auvergne (CNRS, LAPSCO), Clermont-Ferrand F-63000, France
Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences 602 00 Brno, The Czech Republic
Elizabeth Immer-Bernold
Sherpany Product Department, Agilentia AG 8001 Zürich, Switzerland
Jeff Joireman
Department of Marketing and International Business, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4730
Department of Business, School of Business, Dokuz Eylül University 35390 Izmir, Turkey
Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
School of Social Informatics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan
Yu Kou
Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University 100875 Beijing, China
Alexandros-Andreas Kyrtsis https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7030-5959
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 10678 Athens, Greece
Centro de Medición Mide UC, Escuela de Psicología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile 7820436 Santiago, Chile
Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E6, Canada
Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E6, Canada
Norman P. Li
School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, Singapore 178903
Graduate School of Informatics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648610, Japan
School of Business, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521
Zoi Manesi
Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Institute for Brain and Behavior Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam 1018 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Psychology, University of Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
Department of Social Sciences, University of Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia
Department of Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Business School, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, United Kingdom
School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Centre de Recherche en Psychologie de la Cognition, du Langage et de l'Emotion, Maison de la Recherche, Aix-Marseille Université 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France
Department of Sociology and Social Work, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi 700460 Iasi, Romania
Research School of Psychology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Karolina Raczka-Winkler
Institute of Experimental Epileptology and Cognition Research, University of Bonn 53127 Bonn, Germany
Christopher P. Reinders Folmer https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1340-2300
Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Center for Law and Behavior, Department of Jurisprudence, Amsterdam Law School, University of Amsterdam, 1001 NA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba 5000 Córdoba, Argentina
Social, Economic and Organisational Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands
Center for Research in Experimental Economics and Political Decision Making, Amsterdam School of Economics, University of Amsterdam 1001 NJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Católica-Lisbon School of Business and Economics, Universidade Católica Portuguesa 1649-023 Lisbon, Portugal
Psychology Department, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258
Pontus Strimling
The Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm 111 36, Sweden
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 10678 Athens, Greece
Social Media Lab, Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen 72074 Tübingen, Germany
Department of Industrial Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisboa 1649-026, Portugal
Yiwen Wang
Institute of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
Institute of Experimental Epileptology and Cognition Research, University of Bonn 53127 Bonn, Germany
Coller School of Management, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 6997801
Center for Research on Self and Identity, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom
Mechanisms of Normative Change, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 53115 Bonn, Germany
Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 100101 Beijing, China
Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences 100049 Beijing, China
School of Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798
Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Institute for Brain and Behavior Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam 1018 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Notes

1
To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: [email protected].
Author contributions: M.G. analyzed data; N.J.V.D., R.O.M., M.G., and P.A.M.V.L. wrote the paper; and E.A.-M., U.A., W.T.A., L.B., R.B., I.B., N.R.B., X.-P.C., K.B.D., J.B.E., K.E., H.E., S.F., J.F., S. Gächter, C.G., R.G., S. Graf, K.G., S. Guimond, M.H., E.I.-B., J.J., G.K., K.K., T.K., Y.K., A.-A.K., S.L., G.J.L., N.P.L., Y.L., B.M., Z.M., A. Mashuri, A. Mok, K.S.M., L.M., A.N., M.J.P., K.R.-W., C.P.R.F., C.R., A.R., S.S., C.S., A.W.S., P.S., Y.T., S.U., L.v.d.M., S.W., Y.W., B.W., O.W., T.W., F.W., J.W., and J.C.Y. revised the paper.
2
N.J.V.D., R.O.M., M.G., and P.A.M.V.L. contributed equally to this work.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interest.

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