%0 Journal Article
%A Herbst, Thomas
%A Scheidl, Thomas
%A Fink, Matthias
%A Handsteiner, Johannes
%A Wittmann, Bernhard
%A Ursin, Rupert
%A Zeilinger, Anton
%T Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km
%D 2015
%R 10.1073/pnas.1517007112
%J Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
%P 14202-14205
%V 112
%N 46
%X Teleportation of an entangled state, also known as entanglement swapping, plays a vital role in the vision of a global quantum internet, providing unconditionally secure communication, blind cloud computing, and an exponential speedup in distributed quantum computation. In contrast to the teleportation of a single quantum state from one qubit to another, entanglement swapping generates entanglement between two independent qubits that have never interacted in the past. Therefore this protocol represents a key resource for numerous quantum-information applications that has been implemented in many different systems to date. We experimentally demonstrated entanglement swapping over 143 km between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, proving the feasibility of this protocol to be implemented in a future global scenario.As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.
%U https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/112/46/14202.full.pdf