%0 Journal Article
%A Carmi, Shai
%A Havlin, Shlomo
%A Kirkpatrick, Scott
%A Shavitt, Yuval
%A Shir, Eran
%T A model of Internet topology using *k*-shell decomposition
%D 2007
%R 10.1073/pnas.0701175104
%J Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
%P 11150-11154
%V 104
%N 27
%X We study a map of the Internet (at the autonomous systems level), by introducing and using the method of k-shell decomposition and the methods of percolation theory and fractal geometry, to find a model for the structure of the Internet. In particular, our analysis uses information on the connectivity of the network shells to separate, in a unique (no parameters) way, the Internet into three subcomponents: (i) a nucleus that is a small (≈100 nodes), very well connected globally distributed subgraph; (ii) a fractal subcomponent that is able to connect the bulk of the Internet without congesting the nucleus, with self-similar properties and critical exponents predicted from percolation theory; and (iii) dendrite-like structures, usually isolated nodes that are connected to the rest of the network through the nucleus only. We show that our method of decomposition is robust and provides insight into the underlying structure of the Internet and its functional consequences. Our approach of decomposing the network is general and also useful when studying other complex networks.
%U https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/104/27/11150.full.pdf