Treatment variable | Model | |||||

Deforestation + disturbance | Deforestation | Disturbance | ||||

Outcome | 1A | 1B | 2A | 2B | 3A | 3B |

title_0 | −0.2994^{***} (0.0953) | −0.1699^{***} (0.0590) | −0.1295^{***} (0.0479) | |||

title_1 | −0.2051* (0.1086) | −0.0945** (0.0442) | −0.1106 (0.0776) | |||

title_1c | −0.2621^{***} (0.0904) | −0.1401^{***} (0.0504) | −0.1220** (0.0521) | |||

Counterfactual^{†} | 0.3692^{***} (0.0245) | 0.3709^{***} (0.0242) | 0.1745^{***} (0.0132) | 0.1759^{***} (0.0135) | 0.1946^{***} (0.0145) | 0.1950^{***} (0.0140) |

Com.-fixed effects? | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Year-fixed effects? | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Control variables? | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Clustered SEs? | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |

Within R^{2} | 0.1559 | 0.1551 | 0.1295 | 0.1276 | 0.1417 | 0.1416 |

P > F | 0.0094 | 0.0070 | 0.0294 | 0.0205 | 0.0080 | 0.0053 |

Test statistic^{‡} | 0.2926 | n/a | 0.0458 | n/a | 0.7756 | n/a |

Dependent variable is the percentage of community deforested or disturbed in year

*t*= 2000–2005; treatment is award of formal title (SE) (*n*= 51 communities × 6 y = 306 community-years).↵

^{†}Predicted outcome with all treatment variables set equal to zero; computed using delta-method.↵

^{‡}*P*value from*F*-test of null hypothesis that coefficients on*title_0*and*title_1*are equal.↵*** Significant at 1% level; **significant at 5% level; *significant at 10% level.