Table S7.

Robustness check: Fixed effects regressions with 1-y and 2-y lead treatment variables (title_+1 and title_+2)

Treatment variableModel
Deforestation + disturbanceDeforestationDisturbance
Outcome7A7B8A8B9A9B
title_+20.0384 (0.1648)0.0163 (0.1500)0.0014 (0.0699)−0.0151 (0.0681)0.0370 (0.1100)0.0314 (0.0975)
title_+10.0501 (0.1040)0.0658 (0.0989)0.0235 (0.0562)0.0352 (0.0533)0.0267 (0.0553)0.0306 (0.0537)
title_0−0.5350*** (0.1704)−0.2755*** (0.0897)−0.2594*** (0.098)
title_1−0.3282 (0.2048)−0.1206** (0.0606)−0.2076 (0.1539)
title_1c−0.4301** (0.1693)−0.1970*** (0.0702)−0.2331** (0.1140)
Com.-fixed effects?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Year-fixed effects?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Control variables?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Clustered SEs?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Within R20.18160.17900.15640.15120.16310.1626
P > F0.03030.02520.07230.05600.02140.0177
  • Dependent variable is percentage of community deforested or disturbed in year t = 2000–2005; treatment is award of formal title (SE) (n = 43 communities × 6 y = 258 community-years).

  • *** Significant at 1% level; **significant at 5% level.