Table S8.

Robustness check: Fixed effects regressions using a sample that drops neighboring communities

Treatment variableModel
Deforestation + disturbanceDeforestationDisturbance
Outcome10A10B11A11B12A12B
title_0−0.2607** (0.1265)−0.1244* (0.0659)−0.1363* (0.0687)
title_1−0.2190(0.1562)−0.0741 (0.0519)−0.1450 (0.1186)
title_1c−0.2442* (0.1234)−0.1044* (0.0579)−0.1398* (0.0763)
Counterfactual0.4112*** (0.0343)0.4119*** (0.0338)0.1568*** (0.0156)0.1576*** (0.0158)0.2544*** (0.0218)0.2543*** (0.0209)
Com.-fixed effects?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Year-fixed effects?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Control variables?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Clustered SEs?YesYesYesYesYesYes
Within R20.15440.15430.12780.12630.13520.1352
P > F0.01090.00780.00670.00520.05300.0348
  • Communities are considered neighbors if their borders are with 10 km of each other; the dependent variable is the percentage of community deforested or disturbed in year t = 2000–2005; treatment is award of formal title (SE) (n = 28 communities × 6 y = 168 community-years).

  • Predicted outcome with all treatment variables is set equal to zero; computed using the delta-method.

  • *** Significant at 1% level; **significant at 5% level; *significant at 10% level.