Table 2.

Testing individual psychological vs. state normative SDO mediation effects on individual-level hierarchy-enhancing attitudes and behaviors in study 2

Predictors/dependent variablesContext effects → SDO (a)SDO → hierarchy-enhancing attitudes and behaviors (b)Indirect effects (a*b)Unmediated effects (context → hierarchy-enhancing attitudes and behaviors) (c′)
State-level predictor: Economic inequality (Gini)
 Individual-level process
  Economic inequality (cross-level effect)3.47**
   Ethnic persecution0.58**2.02**2.81
   Blatant racism0.78**2.72**0.99
   Welfare opposition1.22**4.21**0.30
   Hostile sexism0.90**3.10**4.82*
   Benevolent sexism0.64**2.22**−0.13
State (cross)-level processes
  Economic inequality (state level)3.47**
   Ethnic persecution0.551.372.81
   Blatant racism0.83*1.640.99
   Welfare opposition1.244.300.30
   Hostile sexism0.762.644.82*
   Benevolent sexism1.27*4.41−0.13
State-level predictor: Presence of violence (US Peace Index)
Individual-level process
  Presence of violence (cross-level effect)0.09*
   Ethnic persecution0.58**0.05*0.07
   Hostile sexism0.78**0.07*0.06
   Benevolent sexism1.21**0.11*0.12
   Welfare opposition0.90**0.08*0.11
   Blatant racism0.64**0.06*0.21**
State-level processes
  Presence of violence (state level)0.09*
   Ethnic persecution0.55*0.050.07
   Hostile sexism0.76*0.070.06
   Benevolent sexism0.98*0.090.12
   Welfare opposition0.79*0.070.11
   Blatant racism0.85*0.070.21**
  • Asterisks indicate statistical significance: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.