Table 1. Key 14C determinations used in the analysis
Event/taxon Site 14C yr B.P. 2σ cal yr Lab no./type Material; treatments (source)
Spore decline Ambolisatra 1,720 ± 40 A.D. 230-410 β-167657 AMS Plant macrofossil; acid/alkali (this paper)
Belo-sur-Mer* 1,990 ± 50 100 B.C.-A.D. 110 β-103348 AMS Organic sediment; acid (5)
Charcoal increase Ambolisatra ca. 1,500
Belo-sur-Mer 1,830 ± 60 A.D. 60-350 β-90099 AMS Eggshell; acid-etched (5)
Amparihibe 1,130 ± 50 A.D. 780-1010 β-67392 AMS Plant macrofossil; acid/alkali (5)
Benavony 710 ± 110 A.D. 1,050-1100 and 1,140-1,430 β-81218 Radiometric Peat; acid/alkali; 4× normal counting time (5)
Tritrivakely 1,240 ± 100 A.D. 630-1,000 β-15884 Radiometric Organic sediment; acid/alkali (7)
Kavitaha 1,400 ± 80 A.D. 530-780 β-14855 Radiometric Organic sediment; acid/alkali (20)
Spore increase (cattle) Amparihibe 1,130 ± 50 A.D. 780-1,010 β-67392 AMS Same date as charcoal increase given above
Kavitaha 960 ± 90 A.D. 900-1,260 β-15528 Radiometric Organic sediment; acid/alkali (20)
Late occurrences, extinct taxa
    Archaeolemur Anjohikely 830 ± 60 A.D. 1,040-1,290 β-55060 AMS Fecal pellet; acid/alkali/acid (12)
Ankarana 1,020 ± 50 A.D. 910-920, 960-1060, and 1,080-1,150 β-60797 AMS Bone collagen; acid/alkali/acid (11)
Belo-sur-Mer 1,370 ± 40 A.D. 620-700 β-90095 AMS Bone collagen; acid/alkali/acid (5)
    Hadropithecus Belo-sur-Mer 1,413 ± 80 A.D. 444-772 Rafter-26341/1 AMS Bone collegen; acid (this paper)
    Palaeopropithecus Ankazoabo 1,269 ± 80 A.D. 640-964 Rafter-10059 AMS Tooth: acid (this paper)
Ankilitelo 510 ± 80 A.D. 1,300-1,510 and 1,600-1,620 Not given AMS Bone collagen: acid/alkali/acid (10)
    Megaladapis Ankilitelo 630 ± 50 A.D. 1,280-1,420 Not given AMS Bone collagen: acid/alkali/acid (10)
    Pachylemur Belo-sur-Mer 1,220 ± 50 A.D. 680-910 and 920-960 β-90098 AMS Bone collagen; acid/alkali/acid (5)
    Aepyornis Belo-sur-Mer 1,830 ± 60 A.D. 60-350 β-90099 AMS Eggshell: acid-etched (5)
    Mullerornis Belo-sur-Mer 1,280 ± 60 A.D. 650-890 β-103349 AMS Bone collagen; acid/alkali/acid (5)
  • See cited sources for other 14C dates from the sites. B.C., before Christ; AMS, accelerator mass spectrometry.

  • * 10 cm below the level of spore decline.

  • Estimated from age model. Sediment date from 10 cm higher, during period of heaviest charcoal influx, was 1,890 ± 90 yr B.P. (see ref. 8). Subsequent dating of a plant macrofossil from 40 cm deeper (1,720 yr B.P.) suggests this sediment date is too old by ≈600 yr, probably due to inherent age effects and/or old carbon redeposition.