Table 1

Atpenin inhibition of respiratory enzymes in nematode and mammalian mitochondria

SpeciesActivitiesIC50, μM
Atpenin A4Atpenin A5Harzianopyridone
A. suum adult muscleComplex I + II*0.110.0141.6
Complex I>100>100>100
Complex II (QFR)0.220.0120.36
Complex II (SQR)§0.220.0322
Bovine heartComplex I + III14082420
Complex II§0.0110.00360.017
Rat liverComplex I + III>500>500>500
Complex II§0.0240.00370.2
  • * Measured by NADH-fumarate reductase activity. 

  • Measured by NADH-quinone reductase activity. UQ1, UQ2, or decylrhodoquinone was used as electron acceptor. 

  • Measured by rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase activity. 

  • § Measured by succinate-UQ reductase activity. 

  • Measured by NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity.