Table 2

Trace elements and rare-earth elements

ElementRainbow sediment, ppmSediment along Rainbow plume, ppm*Seawater, ppmElementRainbow sediment, ppmSediment along Rainbow plume, ppm*Seawater, ppm
As53.025/25/33/390.0026Nb1.920.000015
Ba2270.021Nd5.990.0000028
Be<d.l.0.0000006Ni69.612/18/12/140.0066
Bi2.910.00002Pb13.00.00003
Cd<d.l.0.00011Pr1.520.00000064
Ce10.60.0000012Rb2.810.120
Co76.20.00039Sb0.450.00033
Cr87.621/21/15/8 0.0002Sm1.230.00000045
Cs<d.l.0.0003Sn1.340.00081
Cu3625394/334/142/1100.0009Sr11708.1
Dy1.190.00000091Ta0.14<0.0000025
Er0.6230.00000087Tb0.2000.00000014
Eu0.4790.0000013Th0.870.0000004
Ga1.140.00003Tm0.0980.00000017
Gd1.300.0000007U0.840.0033
Ge0.230.00006V12688/92/103/1150.0019
Hf0.27<0.000008W0.52<0.000001
Ho0.2400.00000022Y9.090.000013
In0.34<d.l.Yb0.5550.00000082
La8.510.0000029Zn21531/30/21/220.005
Lu0.0850.00000015Zr15.20.000026
Mo3.030.01
  • <d.l., below detection limit. 

  • * Values from four sediment cores (0.5 cm from surface) taken at 2, 5, 10, and 25 km (2,540, 2,322, 2,363, and 2,519 m deep, respectively) from the Rainbow site following the vent plume. Data are from ref. 14

  • Seawater at 3.5% salinity (24). 

  • Rare-earth element.