Table 2. Survival and virulence functions encoded in the B. pseudomallei genome
Function Notes and examples
Survival
    Secondary metabolism Fourteen clusters encoding possible antibiotic, surfactant, and siderophore biosynthesis pathways, including putative hydroxamate (BPSL1774-BPSL1779) and pyochelin (BPSS0581-BPSS0588*) siderphores
    Drug resistance Seven Ambler class A, B, and D β-lactamases, including cephalosporinase (BPSS0946) and oxacillinase (BPSS1997*); six multidrug efflux systems, including aminoglycoside-*, macrolide-*, and polymyxin B-specific systems; aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (BPSS0262)
    Intracellular stress Superoxide detoxification, superoxide dismutases (BPSL0880 and BPSL1001), and catalases (BPSS0993 and BPSS2214*), nitric oxide detoxification; flavohaemoglobin (BPSL2840)
    Motility and chemotaxis Five gene clusters encode the components of a single flagella system; 38 chemotaxis-associated proteins*
Virulence
    Secretion Type I,* type II, type III*, and type V protein secretion systems, including three type III systems (TTS1*, BPSS1390-BPSS1408; TTS2, BPSS1613-BPSS1629; and TTS3, BPSS1543-BPSS1552) direct the secretion of proteins outside the bacterium
    Lipopolysaccharide and capsule Capsular polysaccharide synthesis and export cluster (BPSL2787-BPSL2810*); lipopolysaccharides biosynthetic cluster (BPSL2672-BPSL2688); two other potential surface polysaccharides biosynthetic clusters (BPSS1825-BPSS1834* and BPSS0417-BPSS0429*).
    Exoproteins The genome contains many secreted exoenzymes that can break down host tissues, including phospholipases C (BPSL0338*, BPSL2403, and BPSS0067), metalloprotease A (BPSS1993*), and a homologue of the P. aeruginosa MucD Ser protease (BPSL0808) and a putative collogenase (BPSS0666*)
    Adhesins Several surface proteins potentially modulate host—cell interactions, these including seven Hep_Hag repeat family proteins (BPSL1631, BPSL1705*, BPSL2063, BPSS0796, BPSS0908, BPSS1434*, and BPSS1439).
    Fimbriae and pili Thirteen clusters encoding components of type I fimbriae*, type IV pili, and tad-type pili*
  • * Gene or genes associated with this function are absent in the B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome (see Supporting Text).