Table 3. Significant neuronal function-related GO annotations and associated genes and lineages
Annotation Gene Human Chimpanzee Human–chimpanzee Gorilla African ape–macaque*
Axon guidance NRXN3 U (19–21)
Dendrite morphogencsis PTD009 U (12–15)
GABAA receptor activity GABRB3 U (12–20) D (22–20)
GABA/sodium symporter activity SLC6A1 D (22–20)
GABA acid transporter activity SLC6A1 D (22–20)
Glia cell migration SLIT2 U (12–14)
Motor axon guidance SLIT2 U (12–14)
Neuromuscular junction development CUGBP2 D (24–22)
Neuromuscular synaptic transmission DTNA D (20–17)
Neuron differentiation STMN2 D (24–23)
Neuronal cell recognition SLIT2 U (12–14)
Neurotransmitter receptor activity GABRB3 U (12–20) D (22–20)
Neurotransmitter receptor biosynthesis PTD009 U (12–15)
Neurotrophin TRKB receptor activity NTRK2 U (8–9) U (16–23)
Regulation of action potential SRI U (19–20)
Regulation of neurotransmitter levels GLUL U (23–24)
Regulation of synapse NPY U (18–19)
Synaptic transmission GABRB3 U (12–20) D (22–20)
KCNIP2 D (18–17)
MAPK1 U (22–23)
Synaptic vesicle transport SYT4 U (20–23)
Total number of genes 15 4 3 4 5 1
Total number of GO annotations 19 5 6 5 6 1
  • GABA, γ-amino butyric acid; GABAA, GABA type A. U, up-regulated; D, down-regulated. Numbers in parentheses indicate the bin categories spanned by each change.

  • * Change on the ancestral African ape node with respect to the ancestral macaque node