Table 1. The wingbeat frequency (n, Hertz), stroke amplitude (Φ, degrees), and Re of honeybees hovering in normal air (21%O2, 79%N2, ρ = 1.21 kg/m3) and in heliox (21%O2, 79%He, ρ = 0.41 kg/m3)
Normal air
Heliox
Bee n, Hz Φ, ° Re Bee n, Hz Φ, ° Re
1 221.5 ± 4.6 93.9 ± 5.1 1,124 5 252.2 ± 4.6 116.1 ± 4.5 1,582
2 227.7 ± 11.0 96.7 ± 6.8 1,189 6 232.0 ± 5.7 151.7 ± 2.5 1,901
3 245.0 ± 5.3 89.0 ± 9.3 1,177 7 224.4 ± 4.0 147.2 ± 2.8 1,784
4 227.6 ± 4.4 81.3 ± 4.8 1,000 8 231.8 ± 5.1 118.4 ± 3.4 1,483
229.8 ± 11.0 90.8 ± 8.6 1,123 ± 81.3 235.8 ± 11.7 131.6 ± 16.6 1,687 ± 190
  • Kinematics for four bees in each treatment were calculated for a total of eight bees. Individual averages (mean ± SD) for five strokes of each bee as well as treatment averages are presented.