Table 1.

Parameters in the models

ParameterSymbolValueSource
Fraction superspreaders0.01A
Relative infectivity of superspreaders10A
Interward transfer (per patient/per day)0.02A
Average LOS in ICU3 daysU
Average LOS in regular ward7 daysU
Average LOS in simplified model d 8 daysU
Admission from other hospitals5%U
High-risk patients10%A
Rel. admission rate of high-risk patients10A
Staff:patient ratio in ICU1:1U
Staff:patient ratio in regular ward5:18U
Ratio of cross-transmission to HCW transmission8:1A
Mass action term unit vs. hospital p:1 − p 0.95:0.05A
Transmission risk ICU:ward3:1A
Admission from endemic settings0.38%U
Patients from endemic setting MRSA+ 4.7%[11]
Extramural acquisition from different populations5%A
Duration of colonization in extramural populations1/ξ370 days[20]
Detection rate of MRSA (per day)ν0.03U
Fraction failure to isolate1-g0.12U
Successful decontaminationφ0.25[24, 25]
Duration of preventive isolation5 daysU
Reduction of transmission by isolationπ1A
  • U, parameters estimated from data from University Medical Center Utrecht; A, parameters based on assumptions and, therefore, subjected to a sensitivity analysis; LOS, length of stay.