Table 1.

Results of GLM and SLM for selected predictor variables and species richness of vascular plants

Hypothesis and modelGLM
SLM
tDeviance, %AICMoran's IzDeviance, %AICMoran's I
NULL7380.4339.2306
AREA8.56.66690.5320.2*** 57.4−24−0.02
Energy
    PET14.225.4 (16.3)439 (556)0.346.9*** 58.7 (40.6)−72 (265)−0.02
    TEMP9.816.9 (8.5)551 (648)0.3713.6* 57.3 (39.1)−22 (303)−0.02
Water
    PRE17.635.9 (23.2)283 (467)0.3311.1*** 63.9 (44.1)−216 (200)−0.03
    WETDAYS8.916.5 (7.2)556 (663)0.439.1*** 64.2 (43.8)−196 (228)−0.03
Water–energy
    AET20.341.4 (28.6)191 (391)0.2813.1*** 63.8 (44.2)−224 (187)−0.02
    WAT-ENER20.241.3 (28.4)193 (394)0.2912.8*** 64.5 (45.4)−241 (169)−0.02
    PET + WETDAYS51.1 (34.9)6 (299)0.2465.8 (46.1)−296 (145)−0.02
        PET20.934.6 (27.7)11.5***
        WETDAYS17.125.7 (18.5)11.9***
    PET × WETDAYS52.6 (36.8)−24 (270)0.2165.8 (46.1)−297 (143)−0.02
        PET−3.934.6 (27.7)−0.8
        WETDAYS−4.625.7 (18.5)−1.3
        PET:WETDAYS5.61.5 (1.9)1.99*
Heterogeneity
    TOPOVEG20.328.7 (28.6)392 (392)0.5024.4*** 63.9 (61.9)−206 (−161)−0.03
    TOPO17.224.8 (22.4)447 (478)0.4719.5*** 64.2 (55.9)−208 (−16)−0.03
    VEG13.420 (20)512 (510)0.5020.9*** 63.9 (61.9)−116 (−57)−0.03
Structure
    STRUCT14.529.5 (14.5)381 (549)0.305.7*** 60 (40.1)−103 (279)−0.03
History
    KINGDOM20.4 (13.1)505 (605)0.3557.8 (39.7)−33 (296)−0.02
Others
    BIOME46.4 (30.2)120 (391)0.1862.4 (42.3)−155 (248)−0.02
    LAT−12.422.4 (13)480 (595)0.36−5.6*** 58.2 (40)−57 (280)−0.02
  • Species richness and all continuous predictor variables (except for VEG, TOPO, and TOPOVEG) were log10-transformed. Null model: deviance = 123.01; AIC = 737.61; n = 1,032. Values in parentheses refer to models without control for area. Because GLMs do not remove spatial autocorrelation from the residuals, significance levels are not reported. High percentage of explained deviance in single predictor SLM is mostly due to the strong influence of spatial trend term. SLMs leave no significant spatial autocorrelation in the residuals (all global Moran's I have P > 0.05). PRE, mean annual precipitation [millimeters per year (mm/a)]; WAT-ENER, water–energy model according to ref. 36; KINGDOM, floristic kingdom membership; BIOME, biome membership; LAT, absolute latitude.

  • *, P < 0.05;

  • ***, P < 0.001.