Table 2.

Classification of scaling exponents for urban properties and their implications for growth

Scaling exponentDriving forceOrganizationGrowth
β <1Optimization, efficiencyBiologicalSigmoidal: long-term population limit
β >1Creation of information, wealth and resourcesSociologicalBoom/collapse: finite-time singularity/unbounded growth; accelerating growth rates/discontinuities
β = 1Individual maintenanceIndividualExponential