Table 3.

Association between economic conditions in utero and late-life health

Dependent variableIndependent variable: Residual In(crop yield)
Independent variable: In(income)
Independent variable: Employment index
Crop yieldFarmerCrop yield × farmerIncomeFarmerIncome × farmerEmploymentFarmerEmployment × farmer
Death within 2 years0.0205***(0.0074)−0.0134***(0.0016)−0.0149(0.0149)−0.0002(0.0116)−0.0223(0.02)0.0023(0.0053)−0.0003(0.0004)−0.0068(0.012)−0.0001(0.0002)
Diabetes0.0069(0.0381)−0.019**(0.0091)−0.0363(0.0589)−0.0117(0.0572)0.0751(0.245)−0.0105(0.024)0.0025(0.0017)−0.0347(0.0558)0.0002(0.0007)
Heart condition0.0493(−0.0445)−0.0083(−0.0114)−0.0169(−0.0729)0.0077(−0.0651)0.0073(0.2397)−0.0016(0.0298)0.0002(0.002)0.0474(−0.0845)−0.0006(0.0008)
High blood pressure0.0643(0.0612)−0.004(0.0158)−0.1348(0.0998)0.0689(0.0923)0.3981(0.2277)−0.0537(0.0392)−0.0008(0.0027)−0.1537(0.0948)0.0018(0.0011)
Chronic lung disease0.0114(−0.0336)−0.0039(0.0084)0.0398(−0.0567)−.0541(0.0494)−0.0298(0.1408)0.0032(0.0216)0.0017(0.0015)−0.0712*(−0.0385)0.0009(0.0007)
Psychiatric condition−0.0264(0.0385)−0.0158*(0.0089)0.027(0.0648)−0.078(0.0596)0.6927**(0.2789)−0.055**(0.0243)−0.0009(0.0017)−0.0195(0.057)0(0.0007)
Stroke−0.0044(−0.0173)−0.0015(−0.0045)0.0009(−0.0302).0079(0.0268)−.0001(0.0976)−.0001(0.0125)0.0021**(0.0008)−0.0184(−0.0223)0.0002(0.0003)
Arthritis−0.027(0.0605)0.0221(0.0159)0.0132(0.0975)0.0817(0.0924)0.2805(0.2494)−0.0356(0.0394)0.004(0.0027)0.0619(0.1017)−0.0005(0.0011)
Disability0.0153(0.0419)0.0263**(0.0108)0.0765(0.0648)−0.034(0.0643)−0.1394(0.1415)0.023(0.0251)−0.0012(0.0018)−0.0059(0.0686)0.0003(0.0007)
Any ADL0.0061(0.0276)0.0027(0.0068)0.0381(0.0448)−0.0098(0.0421)0.1736(0.2516)−0.0153(0.0166)0.0004(0.0012)−0.0601**(0.0307)0.0008(0.0005)
Any IADL0.0115(0.0373)0.0245**(0.0097)0.055(0.0574)−0.0192(0.0574)−0.104(0.1275)0.0178(0.0225)−0.0021(0.0016)0.0172(0.0628)0(0.0007)
Height0.485(0.3385)−0.0382(0.0964)−0.4718(0.6057)0.4815(0.554)1.3024(1.8785)−0.1619(0.238)0.0038(0.0166)−0.3177(0.6453)0.0036(0.007)
BMI0.3333(0.622)0.0199(0.1707)−0.9127(1.0104)0.2708(0.9682)1.4509(3.277)−0.1714(0.4149)0.005(0.0115)−1.7463(1.0709)0.02*(0.0116)
  • All cells report marginal probabilities calculated from logit estimates at the mean of the independent variables except for height and BMI cells, which report ordinary least-squares estimates. Standard errors clustered at the individual level are shown below in parentheses. Each set of three columns corresponds to a separate regression, with dependent variables shown at the left of each row. Given that 78 estimates of interest are shown, the probability of a statistically significant estimate at the α = 0.05 if no true correlation exists is >98%. Applying an appropriate multiple comparison correction (Bonferroni's adjustment) to recover an underlying confidence level of α = 0.05 yields a corrected significance level of α = 0.00064.

  • *, P < 0.10;

  • **, P < 0.05;

  • ***, P < 0.01.