Table 1.

Populations studied and sample size (only one antimere per individual)

GroupNSite
AFA163Laetoli, Hadar, Fejej, Maka
AFR83Sterkfontein, Makapansgat, Gladysvale
HAB50Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora
GEO24Dmanisi*
ERG36Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora
MPA31Rabat, Tighenif*
ERE130Sangiran Dome*, Trinil*, Zhoukoudian
ANT25Atapuerca-Gran Dolina (TD6)*
HEI 53Mauer*, Arago*, Mountmarin*, Pontnewydd, Steinheim
SH 323Atapuerca-SH*
NEA391Saccopastore*, Monte Circeo*, Le Moustier, Saint Cesaire, Cabezo Gordo, Zafarraya, l'Hortus*, Krapina, Sidrón, Kebara, Tabun, Vindija, Kulna 1, Pinilla del Valle*, Engis II, La Quina*, Shanidar, Gibraltar (Devil's Tower), Petit-Puymoyen, Fondo Cattíe
SAP1,684San Nicolás*, Brassempouy, Wad, Almonda, Mladec, Abri Pataud Trou Magritte, Dolni Vestonice*, Pavlov*, Caldeirao, Skhul, Predmostí
  • See SI Text for a detailed list.

  • *Original fossils. The rest of the examined material belong to the cast collections held at American Museum of Natural History of New York and the Teeth High Resolution Casts Collection of the Universitat de Barcelona.

  • Although some authors assign to HEI the European and African Middle Pleistocene hominins (such as those from Bodo and Kabwe), we have used this denomination to refer exclusively to the European fossils.

  • Because this article focuses on the understanding of the evolutionary scenario of the European Pleistocene populations, we have preferred to analyze the fossils from the Atapuerca-SH site, which represent >90% of the hominin fossil record worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene, separately from the rest of the European Middle Pleistocene specimens, to precisely assess their position in the evolutionary tree.