Table 2.

The relative risk and 95% CIs from the Cox regression models with robust variance predicting high hsCRP levels (hsCRP > 3 mg/dl)

Risk factorLevelBaselineModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
Childhood maltreatment:No11111
Probable1.18 (0.87–1.60)1.11 (0.81–1.52)1.20 (0.89–1.63)1.16 (0.86–1.56)1.07 (0.78–1.46)
Definite1.80 (1.26–2.58)1.58 (1.08–2.31)1.64 (1.12–2.39)1.76 (1.23–2.51)1.61 (1.12–2.32)
Co-occurring early life risks:
    Low birth weight1.61 (1.00–2.57)1.34 (0.85–2.12)1.28 (0.80–2.04)
    Child SESLow1.96 (1.19–3.25)1.77 (1.05–2.97)1.47 (0.88–2.45)
Medium1.59 (1.00–2.52)1.60 (1.00–2.55)1.51 (0.95–2.40)
High111
    Low child IQ1.44 (1.03–2.01)1.27 (0.91–1.78)1.07 (0.73–1.57)
Adult stress indicators:
    SESLow1.38 (0.99–1.92)1.23 (0.87–1.74)1.16 (0.80–1.70)
Medium1.19 (0.85–1.67)1.14 (0.81–1.60)1.08 (0.78–1.51)
High111
    Major depression1.45 (1.06–1.99)1.17 (0.83–1.64)1.17 (0.83–1.64)
    High perceived stress1.45 (1.10–1.91)1.22 (0.90–1.66)1.17 (0.86–1.58)
Adult health and health behavior:
    CV risk cluster2.39 (1.84–3.10)2.50 (1.91–3.27)2.34 (1.77–3.08)
    SmokingNonsmoker111
Up to 10 per day0.88 (0.61–1.28)0.93 (0.64–1.35)0.92 (0.64–1.34)
11 to 20 per day0.85 (0.59–1.23)0.76 (0.52–1.10)0.74 (0.50–1.09)
>20 per day1.18 (0.69–2.03)1.14 (0.64–2.04)1.06 (0.58–1.93)
    Physical activityLight1.57 (1.05–2.34)1.25 (0.83–1.88)1.32 (0.87–1.99)
Moderate1.47 (0.98–2.21)1.16 (0.78–1.73)1.27 (0.84–1.92)
Hard1.30 (0.86–1.97)1.10 (0.73–1.66)1.13 (0.75–1.72)
Very hard111
    Diet (fruit, vegetable) intakeVery low1.01 (0.68–1.48)1.09 (0.74–1.61)1.03 (0.68–1.55)
Low0.78 (0.53–1.16)0.82 (0.56–1.19)0.81 (0.55–1.19)
High1.01 (0.67–1.52)0.92 (0.63–1.36)0.95 (0.64–1.42)
Very high111
Others:
    Male sex0.50 (0.38–0.66)0.54 (0.41–0.72)0.54 (0.41–0.72)0.50 (0.38–0.68)0.56 (0.41–0.76)
    Use of antiinflammatory medication1.33 (1.01–1.75)1.34 (1.02–1.76)1.37 (1.03–1.81)1.35 (1.03–1.77)1.37 (1.03–1.82)
  • The baseline model shows the bivariate analysis of the association between putative risk factors and high hsCRP. Model 1 indexes the co-occurring risk hypothesis, showing the RR of high hsCRP according to maltreatment experiences adjusted for low birth weight, childhood SES, and low childhood IQ. Model 2 indexes the adult stress hypothesis, showing the RR of high hsCRP according to maltreatment experiences adjusted for adult SES, major depression, and high perceived stress. Model 3 indexes the health-behavior hypothesis, showing the RR of high hsCRP according to maltreatment experiences adjusted for cardiovascular risk cluster, smoking, physical activity, and diet. Model 4 shows the RR of high hsCRP according to maltreatment experiences adjusted for all child and adult risk factors. CI values are shown in parentheses.