Table S1.

Results from all pairwise comparisons when controlling for gender

Variable nameCoefficientP valueCohen’s dSignificant in Monte Carlo simulation, %FDR critical value
Published Abstracts (gain)0.1960.0020.4773.30.000434783
Published Abstracts (T2)0.1830.0090.4168.00.000869565
Student Scholarly Encouragement (T1)0.0900.0560.2230.00.001304348
Perceived Cohesion/Sense of Belonging (T1)0.5840.0560.3354.30.001739130
Research Infrastructure (T2)0.1390.0730.4259.40.002173913
Department Collegiality (T2)0.1980.0970.2841.60.002608696
Perceived Cohesion/Sense of Belonging (T2)0.4620.0980.2536.10.003043478
Research Infrastructure (gain)0.1220.1050.003478261
Hypothesis (gain01)0.2100.1210.003913043
Department Collegiality (gain)0.1600.1520.004347826
Student Scholarly Encouragement (T2)0.1080.1560.004782609
Participation in Scholarly Activities (T1)−0.0490.1940.005217391
Participation in Scholarly Activities (T2)−0.0420.2000.005652174
Journal articles (T2)−1.7470.2220.006086957
Hypothesis (T1)0.1710.2290.006521739
Journal articles (gain)−1.7260.2330.006956522
Student-Faculty and Student-Peer Interactions (T1)−0.0330.2490.007391304
Conference Papers (gain)−0.0150.2820.007826087
Department Collegiality (T1)0.0880.3120.008260870
Control/Replication (T1)−0.1560.3120.008695652
Control/Replication (gain01)−0.1600.3220.009130435
Use of Primary Literature (T1)−0.2200.3370.009565217
Data Selection (gain01)−0.1150.3460.010000000
Use of Primary Literature (gain01)−0.1990.3660.010434783
Student Scholarly Encouragement (gain)0.0660.3730.010869565
Academic & Intellectual Development (T2)0.0750.3780.011304348
Alternative Interpretations of Data (gain02)−0.1620.3840.011739130
Conference Papers (T2)−0.0150.4090.012173913
Alternative Interpretations of Data (T2)−0.1460.4230.012608696
Research Infrastructure (T1)0.0340.4420.013043478
Data Selection (T1)−0.0920.4480.013478261
Data Presentation (gain01)−0.0920.4510.013913043
Published Abstracts (T1)−0.0330.4550.014347826
Alternative Interpretations of Data (gain12)−0.1440.4620.014782609
Self-efficacy for Research Skills (T2)−0.6480.4720.015217391
Data Selection (T2)0.1180.4850.015652174
Journal articles (T1)0.0370.4860.016086957
Data Selection (gain12)0.0780.4910.016521739
Self-efficacy for Research Skills (gain)−0.4060.4920.016956522
Data Selection (gain02)0.1170.4940.017391304
Implications of Findings (gain01)0.1280.5090.017826087
Perceived Cohesion/Sense of Belonging (gain)0.1840.5120.018260870
Academic & Intellectual Development (gain)0.0430.5120.018695652
Degree Commitment (T2)0.0280.5130.019130435
Limitations (gain02)−0.1250.5170.019565217
Implications of Findings (gain02)−0.1100.5350.020000000
Limitations (T2)−0.1170.5390.020434783
Context for a Study (gain01)0.0980.5420.020869565
Limitations (gain12)−0.1230.5470.021304348
Institutional Commitment (T2)0.0510.5480.021739130
Implications of Findings (T2)−0.1080.5520.022173913
Data Analysis (gain01)−0.0830.5660.022608696
Implications of Findings (gain12)−0.0960.5840.023043478
Institutional Commitment (gain)0.0410.5910.023478261
Implications of Findings (T1)0.1020.6060.023913043
Academic & Intellectual Development (T1)0.0410.6170.024347826
Control/Replication (gain12)−0.0720.6270.024782609
Context for a Study (T1)0.0800.6280.025217391
Alternative Interpretations of Data (T1)−0.0830.6340.025652174
Experimental Design (T2)0.0570.6360.026086957
Experimental Design (T1)−0.0550.6450.026521739
Experimental Design (gain02)0.0580.6450.026956522
Time to Degree (T2)0.0290.6590.027391304
Time to Degree (gain)0.0230.6720.027826087
Experimental Design (gain01)−0.0500.6740.028260870
Control/Replication (T2)−0.0630.6750.028695652
Student-Faculty and Student-Peer Interactions (T2)−0.0140.6760.029130435
Context for a Study (gain02)−0.0530.6850.029565217
Experimental Design (gain12)0.0470.6880.030000000
Alternative Interpretations of Data (gain01)−0.0690.6930.030434783
Data Analysis (T1)−0.0550.7030.030869565
Overall Writing Quality (gain12)−0.0300.7090.031304348
Overall Writing Quality (T2)−0.0300.7100.031739130
Control/Replication (gain02)−0.0540.7160.032173913
Participation in Scholarly Activities (gain)−0.0090.7190.032608696
Use of Primary Literature (gain02)−0.0650.7270.033043478
Self-efficacy for Research Skills (T1)−0.3380.7470.033478261
Context for a Study (T2)−0.0430.7470.033913043
Degree Commitment (T1)0.0100.7480.034347826
Context for a Study (gain12)−0.0420.7560.034782609
Function of Advisor (T1)0.0150.7740.035217391
Overall Writing Quality (T1)−0.0280.7750.035652174
Total (T1)−0.3440.7870.036086957
Data Presentation (gain02)0.0450.7930.036521739
Function of Advisor (T2)0.0150.8000.036956522
Degree Commitment (gain)0.0110.8030.037391304
Data Presentation (T2)0.0390.8140.037826087
Use of Primary Literature (T2)−0.0440.8170.038260870
Total (gain01)−0.2980.8190.038695652
Total (gain02)−0.3570.8250.039130435
Data Presentation (gain12)0.0370.8290.039565217
Hypothesis (T2)0.0350.8460.040000000
Conclusions based on Data (gain02)−0.0300.8460.040434783
Conclusions based on Data (T1)−0.0330.8490.040869565
Use of Primary Literature (gain12)−0.0360.8510.041304348
Total (gain12)−0.2830.8600.041739130
Total (T2)−0.2830.8610.042173913
Limitations (gain01)0.0330.8660.042608696
Overall Writing Quality (gain02)−0.0130.8760.043043478
Hypothesis (gain02)0.0260.8900.043478261
Conclusions based on Data (gain12)−0.0200.8960.043913043
Conclusions based on Data (T2)−0.0190.8980.044347826
Time to Degree (T1)−0.0050.9070.044782609
Conclusions based on Data (gain01)−0.0190.9080.045217391
Limitations (T1)0.0200.9180.045652174
Student-Faculty and Student-Peer Interactions (gain)0.0020.9300.046086957
Institutional Commitment (T1)0.0060.9410.046521739
Hypothesis (gain12)0.0130.9430.046956522
Overall Writing Quality (gain01)0.0060.9500.047391304
Function of Advisor (gain)0.0030.9630.047826087
Data Analysis (gain02)−0.0070.9650.048260870
Data Analysis (T2)0.0030.9870.048695652
Data Analysis (gain12)0.0030.9870.049130435
Conference Papers (T1)0.0000.9930.049565217
Data Presentation (T1)0.0010.9950.050000000
  • Positive coefficient values reflect a higher mean for students who did not participate in boot camps or bridge programs. Negative coefficients reflect a higher mean for students who did participate. The FDR critical value denotes the threshold value from which to determine statistical significance based on FDR Type-1 error correction; significant differences would be identified by the standard of observed P value ≤ FDR critical value. (Note that gain = T2 controlling for T1, gain01 = T1 controlling for T0, gain02 = T2 controlling for T0, and gain12 = T2 controlling for T1.)