Table 1.

Basic circular statistics for axial directions of cows from six continents

ContinentMean vector
Circular SDRayleigh test, ZRayleigh test, PNo. of herdsNo. of cattle
μr
Africa30.9°/210.9° (17.6–44.1)0.60828.6°12.210.0000015733972
Asia3.7°/183.7° (353.5–13.9)0.78414.2°15.350.0000000825291
Australia12.1°/192.1° (359.4–24.7)0.66825.7°12.490.00000088281,019
Europe1.2°/181.2° (350.0–12.4)0.42230.9°19.78< 0.000000011111,488
North America347.5°/167.5° (159.1–176.0)0.63427.4°29.33< 0.00000001733,034
South America32.0°/212.0° (21.4–42.7)0.67525.4°17.330.00000001381,706
All herds6.4°/186.4° (0.7–12.2)0.48634.4°72.77<0.000000013088,510
• Body positions of cows were estimated by using Google Earth mapping services. For each herd a mean vector has been calculated that was used for further analysis. The mean vector is characterized by its angle (μ) and its length (r). μ is given as XX°/XX° (N-S). Values in parentheses represent the 99% confidence intervals (with reference to north only).