Table 3.

Basic circular statistics for axial directions of deer from the Czech Republic

Deer positionMean vector
Circular SDRayleigh Test ZRayleigh Test pNo. of herdsNo. of deer
μr
Red deer
    All localities10.2°/190.2°(4.4–16.0)0.8814.3°31.17< 0.0001401,062
    Beds10.5°/190.5°0.9013.0°19.52< 0.000124917
    Grazing9.7°/189.7°0.8616.0°11.68< 0.000116145
Roe deer
    All localities9.1°/189.1°(5.8–12.3)0.8317.4°139.07< 0.00012011,912
    Beds7.6°/187.6°0.8615.9°15.44< 0.000121430
    Grazing9.0°/189.0°0.8118.6°99.75< 0.00011521,080
    Resting10.7°/190.7°0.9310.7°24.35< 0.000128402
  • Body positions were estimated for grazing and resting red and roe deer (direct observations) or from snow tracks of resting animals (beds). The mean vector is characterized by its angle (μ) and its length (r). Values in parentheses below the mean vectors represent the 99% confidence intervals (with reference to north only).