Table 2.

Estimated annual value of natural biocontrol services against soybean aphid in 4 north-central U.S. states under a crop landscape typical for the period 2005–2006 and under a biofuel-influenced landscape of increased corn

StateValue of biocontrol service*
IPM,$ in millionsBiocontrol alone,$ in millions
2005–2006
    Iowa115676
    Michigan24138
    Minnesota83488
    Wisconsin18106
    Total2391,407
Increased corn
    Iowa87354
    Michigan1872
    Minnesota63255
    Wisconsin1455
    Total181736
Value lost(58)(671)
  • Biocontrol alone reflects value of the service if all producers rely exclusively on natural biocontrol. IPM reflects value of the service if all producers use IPM practices to reduce aphid damage, including scouting and insecticide applications.

  • *Based on 2007–08 projected soybean price $380 Mg−1 = $10.40 Bu−1.

  • Based on actual 2005–2006 landscapes in study areas.

  • Projected landscape composition using actual 2007 corn ha increases per state.