Table 2.

Summary of metabolites identified that showed significant differences in concentration between the two sample sets

MetaboliteFold changeP valueCompound and metabolism class
Indole derivatives
    Tryptophan1.7, GF8.42 × 10−12
    N-acetyltryptophan2.4, GF3.56 × 10−4
    Indoxyl sulfateconv*1.34 × 10−7Phase I: hydroxyl; phase II: sulfate
    Serotonin2.8, conv1.27 × 10−10
    IPAconv*7.69 × 10−7Bacterial conjugation
Phenyl derivatives
    Phenylalanine1.05, GF0.3
    Tyrosine1.44, GF1.14 × 10−4
    Hippuric acid17.4, conv1.98 × 10−9Phase II: glycine
    Phenylacetylglycine3.8, conv4.70 × 10−8Phase II: glycine
    Phenyl sulfateconv*9.85 × 10−7Phase II: sulfate
    p-Cresol sulfateconv*0.002Phase II: sulfate
    Phenylpropionylglycineconv*3.07 × 10−7Phase II: glycine
    Cinnamoylglycineconv*2.93 × 10−7Phase II: glycine
    Equol sulfateconv*1.44 × 10−5Phase II: sulfate
    Methyl equol sulfateconv*2.18 × 10−6Phase II: sulfate
    Urate1.99, conv1.51 × 10−6
    Creatinine1.08, conv0.071
    Dihydroxyquinoline glucuronideconv*7.64 × 10−6Phase II: glucuronide
    12-Hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z,17Z-eicosapentaenoic acid4.0, conv8.20 × 10−5Fatty acid
    3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-pentyl-2-furanpropionic acid glucuronide3.4, conv1.37 × 10−6Phase II: glucuronide
  • Fold change equals the fold difference in concentration observed between conv and GF samples, with the group indicating which is higher. Names in italics refer to compound identifications that are highly probable, as defined in the text.

  • *Compound observed only in a single group (conv or GF).