Table 1.

Presence of contorted laminae, a distinct axial zone, and bubble-like structures in Archean conical stromatolites

Age, Ga*Contorted laminae and/or distinct axial zoneCement-filled contorted laminae (possible fossil bubbles)ReferenceContinent
3.4AbsentAbsentAllwood et al., 2007 (37); Hofmann et al., 1999 (38); Lowe, 1980 (39)Australia
3.1–2.9AbsentAbsentBeukes and Lowe, 1989 (40)Africa
3.0–2.8UnclearUnclearHofmann et al., 1985 (41)North America
2.9–2.7Unclear§Unclear§Wilks and Nisbet, 1985 (42)North America
2.8 ±?Probably absentProbably absentDonaldson and deKemp, 1998 (43)North America
2.7PresentPresentHofmann and Masson, 1994 (23)North America
2.7PresentPresent**Sakurai et al., 2005 (44); Van Kranendonk et al., 2006 (25)Australia
2.7–2.6Poorly defined and narrowUnclearGrey, 1981 (45)Australia
2.7PresentPresentHofmann et al., 1991 (24)North America
2.6–2.9PresentUnclearSrinivasan et al., 1990 (46)Asia
2.7–2.6PresentPresentWalter, 1983 (47); Abell et al., 1985 (48)Africa
2.7–2.6UnclearUnclearLambert, 1998 (49)North America
<2.63UnclearUnclearMurphy and Sumner, 2008 (50)Australia
2.63–2.52PresentPresentBeukes, 1987 (26); Buck, 1980 (51); Altermann, 2008 (27)Africa
  • *Ages based on the references listed in table 1 in Schopf (52) and Hofmann (28).

  • References only given for the sources that contain detailed descriptions and/or images of conical stromatolites.

  • Biogenicity and stromatolitic nature questionable (41).

  • Insufficient detail given in the published pictures or preserved.

  • §Stromatolites are poorly preserved.

  • Insufficient detail given in the published picture.

  • **Contorted laminae consistent with the former presence of a bubble can be seen in the middle of a well-developed central zone can be seen in Van Kranendonk et al. (25), although we are not aware of any published photographs showing a thin section.