Table 1.

Subject characteristics and associations with new onset asthma

Risk factorN (%)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)
Subject characteristics
    Age at baseline
        5 years496 (19.9)1.00
        6 years1,178 (47.1)1.12 (0.69–2.83)
        7–9 years823 (33.0)1.11 (0.66–1.87)
    Male gender1,190 (47.7)1.07 (0.75–1.53)
    Race/ethnicity
        Hispanic ethnicity1,380 (55.3)1.00
        African-American race77 (3.1)2.44 (1.05–5.67)§
        White non-Hispanic race905 (36.2)1.08 (0.73–1.59)
        Other race135 (5.4)1.67 (0.86–3.27)
    Spanish language questionnaire610 (24.4)0.81 (0.49–1.35)
    Body mass index
        Underweight92 (4.0)2.50 (1.28–4.89)§
        Healthy weight1,587 (68.3)1.00
        At risk of overweight337 (14.5)1.36 (0.79–2.34)
        Overweight308 (13.3)1.45 (0.85–2.46)
    Chest-related illness
        None1,932 (85.0)1.00
        Before age 2129 (5.7)1.93 (0.96–3.86)
        After age 2126 (5.6)2.76 (1.58–4.84)§
        Before and after age 285 (3.7)2.98 (1.48–5.98)§
    Allergies764 (33.6)2.27 (1.54–3.33)§
    Child resides in more than one home178 (7.3)0.60 (0.24–1.46)
Parental characteristics
    Parental history of asthma389 (17.0)2.05 (1.35–3.12)§
    Parental stress (PSS)
        Quartile 1563 (23.8)1.00
        Quartile 2605 (25.6)1.00 (0.59–1.70)
        Quartile 3531 (22.5)1.21 (0.72–2.04)
        Quartile 4664 (28.1)0.97 (0.57–1.64)
Medical care & SES
    Medical insurance coverage2,135 (87.7)1.36 (0.70–2.63)
    Type of medical insurance coverage
        HMO/PPO1,591 (65.3)1.00
        Social assistance547 (22.4)1.28 (0.82–2.01)
        No insurance coverage300 (12.3)0.79 (0.82–2.01)
    Parental education
        Did not finish high school508 (21.2)1.00 (0.61–1.64)
        High school diploma or some college1,318 (55.1)1.00
        College diploma or greater567 (23.7)0.74 (0.45–1.19)
Home characteristics
    Mildew in home532 (21.8)1.22 (0.80–1.86)
    Cockroaches in home257 (10.8)1.53 (0.90–2.63)
    Water damage/flooding in home321 (13.1)1.42 (0.88–2.30)
    Musty odor in home84 (3.5)2.15 (1.05–4.42)§
    Humidifier/vaporizer in home484 (20.1)1.06 (0.67–1.67)
    Any daily smoker inside home164 (6.7)0.88 (0.41–1.90)
    Carpet in child's bedroom2,090 (85.8)1.09 (0.63–1.88)
    Any pets in home1,313 (53.9)0.84 (0.57–1.23)
    Dogs in home730 (30.0)0.79 (0.52–1.21)
    Cats in home462 (19.0)0.73 (0.43–1.24)
    Gas stove in home2,042 (84.5)1.18 (0.70–2.02)
    Air conditioning in home1,448 (60.0)1.16 (0.79–1.72)
    Type of home
        Single-family house1,938 (79.5)1.00
        Apartment (2–10 units)328 (13.5)1.30 (0.76–2.23)
        Apartment (>10 units)102 (4.2)1.71 (0.73–3.96)
        Mobile home/trailer/other69 (2.8)1.52 (0.55–4.15)
  • *Numbers may not total to 2,497 because of missing values.

  • Adjusted for race/ethnicity with baseline strata for age and gender (where appropriate), and community random effects.

  • Denotes reference group.

  • §Denotes statistically significant finding, i.e., P ≤ 0.05.