Table 2.

Selected Neandertal postcranial features

Anatomical regionFeatures
GeneralWide bodies with short extremities, particularly the distal limb segments
Long bones tend to have bowed shafts and thick cortical bone
Postcranial bones tend to be robust with rugose muscle attachments
Axial skeletonHorizontal lower cervical spinous processes
Robust, rounded rib shafts
Upper extremityLong clavicle
Wide scapula with narrow glenoid fossa and dorsal axillary sulcus
Humerus with wide olecranon fossa and narrow surrounding dorsodistal pillars
Ulna with high and long olecranon process and anteriorly oriented trochlear notch
Radius with medially directed tuberosity and long neck
Trapezium with flat first metacarpal facet
Hamate with large hamulus
Third metacarpal with short styloid process
Subequal proximal and distal thumb phalanges
Large hand distal phalangeal tubercles
Lower extremityWide pelvis with long, thin superior pubic ramus
Femur with large articulations, rounded midshaft lacking a pilaster, and low neck-shaft angle
Tibia with projecting tuberosity and absence of diaphyseal concavities
Relatively symmetrical medial and lateral patellar facets
Large foot distal phalangeal tubercles