Table 1.

Information for sedaDNA sequences obtained from seven permafrost layers (age estimates shown in Fig. 1)

Permafrost layersSAP sequence ID (genus)SAP probability support, %SAP sequence ID (species)SAP probability support, %Highest BLAST hitBLAST similarity, %Molecular marker(s)
DNA32Bison85B. bison85B. bison9816S3-4
DNA31Lepus100L. americanus97L. americanus10016S3-4
DNA30Equus97E. caballus98, 10016S1-2*, 16S3-4*
DNA30Mammuthus100M. primigenius100M. primigenius100, 10016S1-2*,, control region*
DNA30Bison88B. bison88B. bison9816S3-4*,
DNA30Alces95A. alces95A. alces10016S1-2
DNA29Bison86B. bison86B. bison9816S3-4
DNA27Alces100A. alces100A. alces10016S1-2*,
DNA25Lepus100L. americanus98L. americanus100, 10016S1-2*, 16S3-4*,F
  • The taxonomic assignments of these sequences using the program SAP (25, 26) are listed adjacent to their statistical support (cut-off value set to a probability of 85%). Also listed is identification through the highest BLAST hit in GenBank along with percentage similarity. For alignment of the query sequences to those in GenBank see Fig. S3.

  • *Obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing.

  • Obtained by GS FLX high-throughput sequencing of tagged PCR products.