Table 1.

Characteristics of training groups

ERP groupfMRI group
Mean ± SDMean ± SD
CharacteristicAllGG-firstNC-firstP valueAllGG-firstNC-firstP value
N3215171688
Sex (f)17890.98*13580.055*
Risk14860.31*5230.59*
Age (y)6.4 ± 0.36.5 ± 0.36.3 ± 0.30.186.4 ± 0.36.5 ± 0.46.4 ± 0.30.55
IQ114 ± 16110 ± 12117 ± 180.25117 ± 13113 ± 10120 ± 160.35
Education (y)16.7 ± 3.117 ± 2.616.4 ± 3.60.5516.1 ± 2.916.4 ± 2.315.8 ± 3.60.71
UC10 ± 7.311.2 ± 5.88.9 ± 8.40.3912.1 ± 7.612.8 ± 6.711.4 ± 8.80.73
LC5.8 ± 6.15.2 ± 5.26.3 ± 7.00.626.8 ± 6.15.6 ± 4.07.9 ± 7.70.48
Reading0.4 ± 1.20.2 ± 0.40.7 ± 1.50.260.5 ± 1.10.3 ± 0.50.8 ± 1.50.39
Phonology35.3 ± 3.635.8 ± 4.234.9 ± 3.00.4836.1 ± 2.936.9 ± 3.035.4 ± 2.80.31
Vocabulary16.3 ± 3.316.3 ± 3.716.3 ± 3.10.9816.4 ± 3.116.6 ± 3.616.1 ± 2.90.76
ARHQ0.29 ± 0.100.28 ± 0.120.30 ± 0.080.420.30 ± 0.110.27 ± 0.140.34 ± 0.060.25
  • ARHQ, mean score of adult reading history questionnaire; Education, parents’ years of education; F, female; LC, knowledge of lowercase letters; Phonology, phonological awareness (sum score of four subtests of the Bielefelder screening test); Reading, number of correctly read words; Risk, children with familial risk for dyslexia; UC, knowledge of uppercase letters.

  • 2 tests.