Table 1

LPS-induced TNF production

TreatmentSerum TNF (ng/ml)
TNF+/+TNF+/−TNF−/−
LPS (100 μg)9.0  ± 0.63.0  ± 0.5*0
C. parvum + LPS (10 μg)1,500  ± 4503,000  ± 1,5000
  • Serum TNF levels 1.5 h after i.p. injection of LPS. C. parvum was injected 10 days before LPS. 

  • * P < 0.05 compared with TNF+/+ mice.