Table 1

Cytokine responses from immunized mice

OVA formRouteCytokine*
INFg (pg/ml)IL-4 (pg/ml)
Proteini.m.387 ± 189n.d.
Proteini.d.389 ± 3735 ± 6
DNAi.m.1,176 ± 372n.d.
DNAi.d.2,906 ± 1,94637 ± 14
  • * Splenocytes (5 × 106/ml) were stimulated in vitro for 48 hr with OVA protein (1 mg/ml), and the cytokine levels were determined in the culture supernatant. The mean ± SD is shown for each group of three mice. No detectable cytokines were found in the culture supernatant that did not contain OVA protein. 

  • Not detectable.