Table 1

Demographic and behavioral data for the three subject groups

HearingDeafHearing native signers
English exposureBirthSchool ageBirth
English proficiencyNativeModerate*Native
ASL exposureNoneBirthBirth
ASL proficiencyNoneNativeNative
HearingNormalProfound deafnessNormal
Mean age262335
HandednessRightRightRight
Performance on fMRI task, percent correct
English
 Sentences858580
 Consonant strings525655
ASL
 Sentences569292
 Nonsigns516260
Numbers of subjects
English
 Left hemisphere8117
 Right hemisphere8129
ASL
 Left hemisphere8118
 Right hemisphere81210
  • * Range of errors on different subtests of Grammaticality Test of English: 6–26%.